Disease

Symptoms and treatment of intestinal dysbiosis

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Health in general depends on the state of the digestive system. Any disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract lead to an imbalance throughout the body. One of the most common pathologies is intestinal dysbiosis in adults. It can develop due to a number of reasons. And to cure this disease quickly is very difficult. An integrated approach is needed, which includes a number of activities.

What it is?

For the digestive system to function normally, it must have the right balance of microflora. Without beneficial bacteria, the normal process of digesting food, the absorption of vitamins and trace elements is impossible. Intestinal biomass, which consists of many types of bacteria, is found in the colon. Their basis is aerobic lactobacilli and anaerobic bifidorbacteria.

It is the correct balance of intestinal microflora that protects a person from numerous infections, the destruction and removal of toxins from the body. In case of imbalance in the direction of pathogenic microflora, self-poisoning of the body begins, dysbiosis develops. Following it, disturbances in the operation of other systems and organs can occur.

Causes of occurrence

It is not always possible to answer unequivocally why the balanced composition of intestinal microflora in adults fails. There are factors that can trigger the mechanism of development of dysbiosis:

  • Malnutrition. This may include an unbalanced diet with a predominance of uniform food. Insufficient intake of fiber creates a deficiency of a favorable environment for beneficial microflora. Intestines are poisoned by foods rich in artificial additives, fast carbohydrates, animal fats.
  • Digestive apparatus diseases. A constant source of pathogenic microflora is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, improper synthesis of enzymes, bowel obstruction, gastritis, ulcers, etc.
  • Taking antibiotics. These drugs are harmful not only for pathogenic bacteria, but also for beneficial ones. Therefore, antibiotic therapy should be constantly replenished with the use of drugs with beneficial microflora.
  • Diseases of the endocrine system that are caused by the use of hormonal drugs.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy weaken the immune system and provoke a massive reduction in beneficial bacteria.
  • Past surgery on the stomach.
  • Poor hand and food hygiene through which pathogens enter the digestive tract.
  • Regular stresses, experiences.

Stages and symptoms of the disease

Dysbacteriosis develops gradually. Its 4 stages are determined, which are characterized by their own symptoms.

  • Stage 1 - the microflora balance is disturbed slightly. The patient does not feel obvious symptoms. There is a slight rumbling in the stomach. If you remove the annoying factor, the microflora will return to its normal composition.
  • Stage 2 - a more pronounced imbalance of microflora. The patient's appetite decreases, there is an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth, bloating. In connection with a decrease in the number of beneficial bacteria, inflammatory processes develop in the intestine.
  • Stage 3 - pathogenic flora causes damage to the intestinal walls. Symptoms are more pronounced than in 2 stages. Along the intestines, pain, nausea, and vomiting appear. Feces with impurities of undigested food.
  • Pathogenic organisms have almost completely replaced useful ones. In addition to flatulence, diarrhea, abdominal pain, the patient complains of weakness, dyspeptic disorders, exhaustion, apathy. There is a violation of the absorption of nutrients, and as a result, anemia, vitamin deficiency develops.

If you do not pay attention to intestinal dysfunction in a timely manner, chronic dysbiosis develops. It can be accompanied by a violation of the heart rhythm, shortness of breath.

First, the patient must consult a gastroenterologist. He will prescribe a bacteriological analysis of feces. Additionally, instrumental examinations are carried out:

  • Gastroscopy,
  • Colonoscopy
  • Irrigoscopy
  • Sigmoidoscopy.

How and what to treat?

It is not possible to cure dysbiosis very quickly, especially if it is already at the 3-4 stage. A comprehensive and phased approach to treatment is required:

  • Destroy pathogenic bacteria.
  • Populate the intestines with beneficial microflora.
  • Normalize microflora balance.
  • Restore bowel function.
  • Correct the immune status.

In order to properly prescribe treatment, the doctor must determine which microflora prevails in the intestines, and which beneficial bacteria are deficient in order to replenish them. That is, the treatment regimen for each patient is individual.

Medicines

Stage 1 treatment - cleansing the intestines from pathogenic microflora. For this purpose, different groups of antibiotics are prescribed (tetracyclines, cephalosporins, penicillins, etc.), antifungal agents. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used in case of a serious intestinal absorption disorder due to an excess of pathogenic bacteria, and in case of gastrointestinal tract infections. Mild cases can be treated with antimicrobials that act on bacteria in the intestinal lumen (furazolidone). The average course of treatment is 7-10 days.

Kill pathogenic flora, practically without affecting the main, intestinal antiseptics:

To cleanse the intestines of toxins that have accumulated after taking antibiotics, sorbents are prescribed. These drugs are also effective for diarrhea:

It is possible to improve the absorption of nutrients and the breakdown of food with the help of enzyme, choleretic drugs, and hepatoprotectors:

The most important stage in the treatment of dysbiosis is the restoration of normal microflora. For this, the intake of such groups of drugs is indicated:

  • Probiotics - contain live strains of bacteria. Probiotics do not colonize the intestines. They compete with the optional flora, suppressing it, restore balance. There are monocomponent probiotics (Lactobacterin), multicomponent (Linex, Bifiform), antagonists (Enterol).
  • Prebiotics - come with food, are not digested. They are a breeding ground for obligate bacteria. These are lactulose, galactose, other polysaccharides.
  • Synbiotics are a combination of probiotics and prebiotics (Normoflorin, Laminolact).

Folk remedies

In addition to the drugs prescribed by the gastroenterologist, traditional medicine can be used.

  • Eat 1 clove of garlic twice a day (in the morning on an empty stomach and 2 hours after dinner) for 2 weeks. Wash down with water or kefir. Garlic is a natural antiseptic that suppresses putrefactive processes in the intestines.
  • Drink 15 drops of propolis tincture three times a day before meals. Pre-dilute with water. The course of treatment is 4-6 weeks.
  • To restore the intestinal mucosa, it is useful to take a decoction of flax seeds or oats. They have an enveloping effect.
  • With diarrhea, decoctions of oak bark, pomegranate skins are taken. They have an astringent effect.

Medicinal herbs

  • Prepare a collection of herbs of chamomile, rosehip, St. John's wort (2 parts each), horsetail field (1 part), plantain (3 parts), yarrow (5 parts). 1 tablespoon of the mixture pour ½ liter of boiling water and simmer in a water bath for half an hour. Drink ½ cup before meals three times a day.
  • Laxative effects are decoctions of hay, buckthorn, aloe juice. These funds are contraindicated in hemorrhoids and rectal fissures.
  • To facilitate the passage of gases and eliminate constipation, you can use a decoction of fennel, anise or dill seeds.
  • An anti-inflammatory effect is possessed by a decoction of sage, coltsfoot, and hemophilus (1 tablespoon of raw material per 200 ml of water).

Nutrition recommendations

It is impossible to cure dysbiosis without nutrition correction. From 1 day of treatment, you must adhere to the rules of the diet:

  • Avoid starvation, eat food every 3 hours in small portions.
  • Remove fried and spicy dishes from the diet.
  • Exclude food that enhances the fermentation processes: cabbage, sour fruits, fresh bread, pastries.
  • Do not drink water while eating. You can drink food half an hour after eating it.
  • Include plenty of protein foods on the menu. The meat should be lean, not fried.
  • Refuse alcohol.
  • Increase the intake of fiber, which is a lot in fresh vegetables and fruits, cereals. It is useful to consume germinated wheat grains.
  • Include in the diet fresh dairy products containing healthy microflora (kefir, yogurt, Narine).
  • Do not use products with preservatives, flavor enhancers and other chemical additives.

Prevention

Proper nutrition is the best way to prevent intestinal dysbiosis. Therefore, it is necessary to abandon harmful products that irritate the mucosa, cause stagnant and putrefactive processes in the digestive tract. Do not get involved in strict diets. Refusal of many products leads to an imbalance of microflora, a deficiency of nutrients and a decrease in immunity.

It is very important to monitor your general health. You can not self-medicate and take any medication uncontrollably. It is necessary to timely identify and treat chronic foci of inflammation that violate microbiocinosis. Good hygiene helps prevent intestinal infections. Therefore, before eating, be sure to thoroughly wash your hands, vegetables, fruits.

Patient Reviews

Kseniya

“I was diagnosed with dysbiosis against the background of a sharp weakening of immunity and stress. I suffered from flatulence and diarrhea. I was prescribed Ecofemin, a comprehensive probiotic. I drank it for a month, and restored the microflora. In this case, it is absolutely necessary to control the nutrition. After treatment, I keep a healthy diet all the time. ”

Nina

“I recently took a course of strong antibiotics. To support the intestines, the doctor recommended that I take Linex. After the end of antibiotic therapy, the probiotic also took 2 weeks. "

Ivan

“Many people begin to pay attention to digestive problems when the situation has already gone beyond the scope of minor discomfort. It takes a long and intensive treatment. Therefore, it is better to defend yourself in advance, to change the lifestyle and nutrition. It is from improper nutrition that all the troubles in the body begin. ”

Intestinal dysbiosis in adults is a serious problem that many do not immediately pay attention to. In order to get rid of it without consequences and quickly, you need to sound the alarm at the first symptoms. To do this, you just need to find time to visit a gastroenterologist, and be examined. Based on the results of the diagnosis, the doctor will select the optimal treatment regimen, and give tips on nutrition correction.

Brief description of the disease

Intestinal dysbiosis is a common phenomenon that some doctors consider to be a disease, while others are just a dysfunction resulting from a different pathology or lifestyle. In both cases, we are talking about a violation of the intestinal microflora, which has unpleasant symptoms and is fraught with various complications and consequences.

Normal microflora

Intestinal biocenosis is the variety in the large intestine of microbes that are present in certain quantities in every healthy person and are the norm. Microorganisms perform many important functions. Bacteria for the intestines are the usual "inhabitants."

Their total weight in this organ in an adult is about two to three kilograms.The number of species of microorganisms reaches five hundred. The vast majority of microbes "live" in the colon. Other departments have a minimum. All intestinal microorganisms are conditionally divided into beneficial and pathogenic bacteria. The first group includes:

  • bifidobacteria
  • lactobacilli,
  • E. coli.

Pathogenic flora includes:

  • peptococci,
  • Candida mushrooms
  • staphylococci,
  • clostridia.

There are relatively few harmful (or optional) bacteria. In a healthy person, they "sit quietly," because immunity does not allow them to "protrude". Their presence in this state is normal and necessary for a certain balance of forces.

Microbial diversity is extremely important for the body, because it performs protective functions, synthesizes vitamins, lowers cholesterol, helps processed foods to be absorbed into the intestinal wall, and at the same time activates metabolic processes.

The essence of dysbiosis

Dysbacteriosis is the antonym of normbiocenosis. With it, the balance of microflora is disturbed. There are fewer beneficial bacteria, their activity is reduced. Putrefactive bacteria (conditionally pathogenic), on the contrary, multiply rapidly, suppressing their “neighbors”.

Extremely adverse health processes begin.

Deficiency of lactobacilli and other beneficial microorganisms leads to digestion, a decrease in immunity, and a slowdown in metabolic processes. The body lacks nutrients, weakens, becomes vulnerable.

Sometimes you can hear the term gastric dysbiosis. It is erroneous because there are not so many microorganisms in the digestive organ that could play a significant role. It is also incorrect to look for differences and similarities between dysbiosis, dysbiosis. It is in this case the same thing.

What triggers dysbiosis

Imbalance in microflora is always caused by certain factors. The pathogenic process itself does not start. The causes of dysbiosis in which beneficial microorganisms die can be:

  • digestive enzyme deficiency
  • weak intestinal muscles that are not able to normally push food,
  • increased acidity or alkali level in the body,
  • lack of substances that promote the growth of beneficial bacteria or the abundance of those that kill them,
  • parasites that "occupied" the intestines.

It is possible to cure dysbiosis only knowing what provoked it. The factors listed above become a consequence:

  • various gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, ulcer),
  • infections (viral, fungal, parasitic, bacterial),
  • congenital or acquired disorders of the anatomical structure of the digestive tract,
  • an abundance of junk food,
  • bad ecology
  • physical overstrain, which often cause intestinal problems in men,
  • abuse of alcohol that kills the microflora,
  • long-term antibiotic treatment
  • constant stress, severe nervous strain (this factor is one of the leaders among the causes of dysbiosis in women),
  • pregnancy,
  • a sharp change in diet.
  • immunodeficiency,
  • allergic reactions.

Often, severe dysbiosis occurs in people who have flown from one climatic zone to another. In a short travel time, the body does not have time to rebuild without consequences. In such cases, it is not necessary to treat dysbiosis with serious drugs. After adaptation of the body, normal microflora will be restored. If the signs are pronounced, you can provide first aid in the form of symptomatic treatment.

Varieties of dysfunction

There are such types of dysbiosis as acute and chronic. The first takes place in most cases. With adequate treatment, the microflora is restored in a few weeks, all symptoms disappear.

The chronic type is much less common. It develops when it is not possible to defeat dysbiosis for months, and sometimes for years.As a rule, certain factors impede recovery. For example, a serious incurable disease, constant stress or alcoholism. Chronic dysbiosis leads to serious consequences for the body.

There is also a classification of pathology according to the type of pathogen. There are fungal dysbiosis, proteus, staphylococcal type and associative. The easiest and safest course in Proteus. The most complex type is considered associative.

Warning! It is difficult to determine which species takes place by one symptom. A quality examination is needed.

Stages of Dysbiosis

Like most dysfunctions, dysbiosis has several stages. The manifestations of the disease, as well as treatment, depend on them. The development of pathology occurs in stages:

  1. Dysbacteriosis of 1 degree. A decrease in the number of Escherichia coli (Escherichia) is recorded. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are present in full force.
  2. Dysbacteriosis of the 2nd degree. The number of Escherichia is significantly reduced. There is a slight deficiency of bifidobacteria. The number of pathogenic microorganisms is growing.
  3. Dysbacteriosis of 3 degrees. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are much smaller than necessary. Pathogenic flora provokes disruptions in the intestines.
  4. Dysbacteriosis of 4 degrees. Bifidoflora is killed. Almost complete absence of lactobacilli. The intestine undergoes serious destructive processes.

The easiest way to fix the problem is at the very beginning. Normalization of intestinal microflora in the later stages will take a lot of time and effort. In this case, the disease has time to cause significant damage to the body.

Advice! At the first clinical manifestations, you should consult a doctor.

Symptomatic picture

An imbalance of microflora can not be felt for a long time. Symptoms of dysbiosis in adults are often absent in the first stages, appearing only when everything is already quite running. And this is the insidiousness of the disease. In addition, the signs of dysbiosis are identical to the manifestations of many other pathologies. There are no specific ones.

Dysbiosis is characterized by:

  1. Bad breath. Sometimes this is the only sign of dysbiosis. It is explained by putrefactive processes in the intestines.
  2. Diarrhea is a common symptom of dysbiosis. It can occur four to six times a day, or even more often. Danger of dehydration. Regular diarrhea is a sure sign that the intestines are not all right. Feces can be foamy, it is difficult to wash them off the walls of the toilet
  3. Constipation is less common than diarrhea. Usually they affect elderly patients, whose intestinal motility is significantly slowed.
  4. Unstable stools alternate with constipation and diarrhea. Feces can be very offensive. An unusual color of feces is sometimes observed.
  5. A rumbling in the abdomen is heard more often in the initial stages. Indicates intestinal problems. Over time, flatulence intensifies, a person literally bursts with gas, his stomach increases. Frequent burping of air is observed.
  6. The pains are localized in the intestinal region. The stomach is especially sore with constipation, with severe flatulence due to stretching of the intestinal walls. The unpleasant sensation is enhanced by pressure.
  7. Nausea, vomiting, discomfort inside, bad taste in the mouth. These, typical for many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, signs can appear with dysbiosis. Sometimes heartburn occurs.
  8. With dysbiosis, food is poorly absorbed, the body lacks "building materials", which often leads to weight loss.
  9. Deficiency of nutrients in advanced stages is manifested by symptoms such as apathy, drowsiness, depression. A person almost constantly feels a general weakness. It does not pass even after a night's rest. The patient wakes up already tired.
  10. An increase in temperature is accompanied by dysbiosis rather rarely. Such a symptom can make itself felt if there is a strong intoxication of the body.Fever is possible with severe exacerbations of chronic dysbiosis.
  11. Sometimes after eating the usual foods, allergic reactions can occur. Namely - a rash, flushing of the skin, itching. Such reactions are explained by a decrease in the protective properties of the body due to disturbed microflora.

Vitamin deficiency resulting from dysbiosis can be manifested by brittle nails, dull hair, as well as pallor and dry skin, jamming in the corners of the lips. The more serious the stage, the more pronounced are the symptoms that indicate not only a disturbed microflora, but also a general deterioration in health.

Diagnostic measures

An accurate diagnosis of dysbacteriosis can only be made by a professional doctor, who should be consulted at the first alarming symptoms. At the initial stage of the survey, the following will be carried out:

  • conversation with the patient
  • medical history
  • visual inspection with palpation.

However, only on the basis of data obtained as a result of these actions, a treatment regimen for dysbiosis cannot be developed. Be sure to use laboratory research methods that will refute or confirm the presence of a problem, determine the type of pathogen, stage of the disease.

To date, the main method for diagnosing dysbiosis remains a bacteriological analysis of feces. Although it is not perfect (it is expensive, takes a lot of time, does not exclude errors), but there is no better method yet.

It is important to correctly prepare for the analysis, to properly collect the material. A few days before the procedure, it is necessary to exclude from the diet everything that can affect the microflora. These are dairy products:

  • fermented baked milk,
  • kefir,
  • sour cream,
  • kvass,
  • any alcohol (especially beer),
  • antibiotics.

When collecting material, it is advisable to take an average portion of feces, not from the toilet, but from a clean piece of paper. Place a piece in a special sterile cone. Deliver to the laboratory no later than two hours after collection.

Attention! Sometimes you have to take an analysis for dysbiosis several times. This is due to the fact that during the collection of material or during the study, errors are allowed that affect the result.

In order to diagnose diseases that have caused or result from dysbiosis, other research methods are used. This is a blood test, ultrasound, MRI, CT. Sometimes, an x-ray with contrast is prescribed to determine the state of the intestine. It supplements the results of microbiological analysis of microflora.

Treatment features

Normalizing the situation with dysbiosis in most cases is not so simple. A comprehensive treatment is needed, aimed not only at eliminating the symptoms, but also at eliminating the causes. Its main tasks are:

  • inhibition of growth in the number of pathogenic microorganisms,
  • stimulation of the reproduction of beneficial bacteria,
  • increase immunity.

Today in pharmacies are quite inexpensive, but effective drugs for dysbiosis. Their use greatly facilitates the fight against sore. However, even the best remedies for dysbiosis will not help, if you do not adjust the diet, do not lead a healthy lifestyle. Poor food, bad habits will aggravate the situation.

In some cases, treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults is not required. Microflora, disturbed after stress, a series of holidays or a change in climate, is restored by itself. Treatment of dysbiosis after antibiotics may be limited to drugs based on live bacteria.

Complex therapy is needed. It takes not one or two days, but several weeks. As a rule, medications for dysbiosis can be taken at home. Only occasionally are hospital conditions required.

Drug therapy

In the treatment of dysbiosis, drugs to improve microflora play an important role. These are products containing live bacteria. Their common name is probiotics.In those cases when a large number of pathogenic organisms were sown, treatment should begin with their elimination. Otherwise, beneficial bacteria will have nowhere to settle. Therefore, it is necessary to drink antibiotics for dysbiosis. Recommended medications include:

  1. Furazolidone is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. It is considered a powerful antimicrobial agent. It activates the immune system.
  2. Metronidazole has an antiprotozoal and antimicrobial effect. It is widely used for abdominal infections.
  3. Chloramphenicol is considered a broad-spectrum antibiotic. It is especially effective in identifying enterococci.

If a fungal type of dysbacteriosis is diagnosed, patients are prescribed a drug to combat Candida fluconazole yeast. It is not an antibiotic, but is considered an antifungal agent.

Doctors try to use all antibacterial drugs very carefully, giving preference to intestinal antiseptics. They eliminate pathogenic flora, while not touching healthy. New generation intestinal antiseptics include:

  • Dependal-M
  • Sumerolim
  • Enterosed
  • Ersefurilu
  • Intetrix.

Another drug widely used for dysbiosis is Enterofuril. After antibiotic and antiseptic therapy, the free space is populated with beneficial bacteria contained in probiotics. For example, live lactobacilli for the intestines are found in Lactobacterin.

Bifidobacteria - in Bifidumbacterin. Both of these agents are single drugs in tablets for the restoration of intestinal microflora. Although there are other forms of release of these drugs. In particular, candles with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.

Along with monocomponent preparations, multicomponent with different types of bacteria can be prescribed. Effective remedies from this group include, for example, Bifiform. There are also combined probiotics containing beneficial and pathogenic organisms - Acipol, Bifilis. Linex is used to stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria. Bilaminolact, Ecoflor have a similar effect.

Activated charcoal is prescribed to remove toxins from the body. Apply it should be limited. To the means of similar action also include Polyphepan, Polysorb. In case of dysbiosis, prebiotics stimulating the growth of healthy microflora are relevant. These substances are found in foods. Special drugs may be prescribed - Hilak Forte, Dufalac (syrups) or Bactistatin capsules.

Treatment of dysbiosis should be comprehensive. It is aimed at eliminating the root cause, which often becomes a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The drugs used depend on the specific pathology. It can be:

  1. Omez has a pronounced antiulcer effect.
  2. Mezim is an enzyme agent. It is prescribed for serious digestive disorders.
  3. Pancreatin is used for pancreatic diseases. Contributes to better digestion of food.
  4. De-nol is indispensable for gastritis. It has an astringent and enveloping effect.

If signs of dysbiosis are pronounced, symptomatic treatment may be required. So, for example, diarrhea is eliminated by Loperamide. This drug normalizes stool, but has absolutely no effect on the intestinal microflora. Pain is relieved by analgesics. They fight constipation with a laxative.

Important! Symptomatic treatment is not able to eliminate the cause, therefore it is carried out exclusively during complex therapy.

Diet and folk remedies for dysbiosis

Nutrition for dysbiosis plays an important role. Recovery is largely dependent on him. The purpose of the diet is to protect the intestines from negative influences (mechanical, thermal). Food should be steamed, stewed or boiled. It should be taken on a schedule - often, but little by little. You can eat:

  • low-fat varieties of fish, meat,
  • heat-treated vegetables, fruits, berries (except grapes, bananas, sweet apples),
  • greens,
  • cereals
  • nuts
  • legumes.

Diet for intestinal dysbiosis in adults excludes:

  • fatty
  • roast,
  • food full of preservatives
  • sharp
  • fast food,
  • ice cream,
  • condensed milk
  • most foods that cause flatulence
  • semolina and rice porridge,
  • soda
  • alcohol.

Folk remedies for dysbiosis are often based on food. For example, as antiseptics it is proposed to use juices of raspberries, blueberries, pomegranate, cranberries, strawberries. The carminative effect is provided by dill, caraway seeds, on the basis of which decoctions and infusions are prepared. To get rid of dysbiosis, it is recommended to eat more garlic and Jerusalem artichoke.

Herbal treatment is widely used. For example, with diarrhea, fixing decoctions of their oak bark are prepared. They help to stop the pain syndrome of mint, calendula, St. John's wort. Fighting constipation with enemas based on a decoction of chamomile.

Dysbacteriosis in children

Dysbacteriosis in a child is more common than in an adult. Especially when it comes to babies. The development of pathology is facilitated by the unformed digestive system, the almost complete absence of its own immunity. There is a higher risk of infection in toddler babies.

Dysbacteriosis is manifested in children with frequent loose stools or, conversely, its long absence, anxiety, sleep problems, loss of appetite, prolonged crying. Such babies can greatly underweight. Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in children are not always pronounced. Deviation can only be manifested by a slight rumbling in the abdomen. And to ignore this symptom is not worth it, because the situation may worsen.

Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in children depends on the age of the young patient. Artificial breasts are transferred to special mixtures, kefirchik is introduced into the diet. If the baby’s nutrition is mother’s milk, then mother is advised to review his menu. Most often, the reasons are in its errors.

Older children, as well as babies suffering from serious dysbiosis, may be prescribed antibiotics, drugs containing enzymes. But you need to adjust the power in any case.

Important! Particular attention should be paid to ensure that the child's body receives enough vitamins.

So, dysbiosis is not an independent disease, but a consequence of another pathology or an incorrect lifestyle. If you care about prevention - the intestines need to be protected. Eat normally, do not abuse alcohol, try not to take antibiotics without special need, wash your hands before eating, treat all diseases in a timely manner, undergo regular medical examinations, and avoid foci of epidemics. For young children, the best preventive measure is breastfeeding.

If dysbiosis still made itself felt, it is necessary to proceed to its treatment immediately. The chronic form is fraught with such serious complications as secondary intestinal infections, diverticulitis, enterocolitis, sepsis, peritonitis.
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The body with it constantly loses the necessary substances, which leads to a deterioration in the general condition - both physical and moral. Acute dysbiosis can lead to dehydration. This is especially true and dangerous for young children who may even die.

You can not ignore the disease. With a competent approach, dysbiosis is successfully treated, the prognosis is favorable.

Description

A specific set of bacterial groups is present throughout the human body. By the way, far from always these are harmful bacteria. Moreover, for each specific place, whether it is the oral cavity, intestines, throat or vagina, this set of microorganisms is different. Moreover, for each person, these combinations are often individual.Doctors call this optimal set of bacteria eubiosis, less often intestinal biocenosis, and a violation of its composition, quantity or properties - dysbiosis. We will figure out a specific form of dysbiosis - a violation of the composition of the intestinal microflora, leading to a decrease in the number of beneficial bacteria that live on the intestinal walls.

Dysbacteriosis is a condition or disease (the discussion about the relevance of the last term in this case has not been closed so far), which is manifested by a fairly standard list of symptoms, depending on the complexity of the course. In this case, the causes of this gastrointestinal pathology can radically differ from each other in various cases. Unfortunately, far from always people are well aware of intestinal dysbiosis, symptoms, and treatment of this disease in adults.

Causes of Dysbiosis

Banal changes in diet, changes in the chemical composition of water consumed, changes in climate, stress, and diet can lead to changes in the number of pathogenic microbes and manifestations of an imbalance in the intestinal flora. More serious prerequisites can lead to this: food poisoning, indigestion due to errors in the diet, the use of antibiotics or intestinal tract disease. And the main thing in all this is that in order to get rid of the clinical symptoms of microflora disturbance in the intestine, first of all, you need to get rid of the prerequisites for the occurrence of such a condition.

Dysbacteriosis, symptoms

Signs of intestinal dysbiosis are quite diverse and largely depend on what stage the development of the disease is at. The dysbacteriosis of the large intestine is divided into four stages according to the complexity of changes in microflora. Symptoms in adults for each stage have their own characteristics. Consider them for clarity in the form of a table:

StageSymptoms of dysbiosisRemedies and possible consequences
First stageAt this stage of dysbiosis, symptoms are practically not observed. Possible manifestation of unsystematic rumbling in the abdomen.Dysbacteriosis of the large intestine of the first stage occurs by changing the regimen of food intake or the type of water used. Elimination of the cause leads to independent normalization of microflora.
Second stageIn the second stage of dysbiosis, symptoms include constipation or diarrhea, decreased appetite, bad taste in the mouth, nausea and vomiting.If the intestinal microflora is disturbed, such symptoms arise due to a significant change in the composition of microbes, which is provoked by the use of antibiotics or light food poisoning.
Third stageThere are pains in the intestines, intestinal absorption is disturbed and undigested food comes out with feces, the symptoms characteristic of second-stage dysbiosis are intensified.Intestinal dysbiosis at this stage leads to the development of inflammation of the mucous membranes of the intestinal walls, impaired intestinal motility and digestion. To avoid serious consequences, medical intervention is required.
Fourth stageSymptoms of dysbacteriosis of the fourth stage include signs characteristic of the previous stages. In addition, insomnia, apathy, and depression intensify.With an almost complete change in the composition of the intestinal microflora, anemia and vitamin deficiency develop. If you do not carry out qualified treatment, then intestinal dysbiosis of the fourth stage can lead not only to digestive disorders, but also to serious infectious diseases.

Classification of dysbiosis by the content of microorganisms in the feces

In addition, there is another classification of the complexity of the disease, based not on the symptoms of dysbiosis, but on the testimony of laboratory studies of feces in violation of microflora. For adults, it is divided into two groups. For clarity, we also present it in the form of a table:

AgeStageLaboratory indicators
Up to 50 yearsStage 1An underestimated to 10 5 -10 6 or an overestimated to 10 9 -10 10 an indicator of typical Escherichia, an underestimated to 10 5 -10 6 an indicator of lactobacilli and an underestimated to 10 6 -10 7 an indicator of bifidobacteria.
2 stageAn overestimated to 10 5 -10 7 indicator of opportunistic bacteria, an underestimated to 10 7 indicator of bifidobacteria and up to 10 5 lactobacilli.
3 stageThe rate of opportunistic microorganisms exceeds 10 7, the rate of lactobacilli is reduced to 10 5, bifidobacteria to 10 7.
After 50 yearsStage 1The indicator of typical Escherichia went beyond 10 5 -10 10, the indicator of lactobacilli decreased to 10 4 -10 5, bifidobacteria - to 10 6 -10 7.
2 stageAn increase in the rate of opportunistic microorganisms rises to 10 5 -10 7, the indicator of lactobacilli decreases to 10 4, bifidobacteria to 10 6.
3 stageThe rate of opportunistic microorganisms exceeds 10 6 -10 7, the rate of lactobacilli is reduced to 10 4, bifidobacteria to 10 6.

Visual analysis of feces in violation of intestinal microflora

Also, with dysbiosis, serious attention is paid to the nature of the pathology of the intestinal tract, which is quite simply determined by the type and color of feces, as well as by the condition of the stool.

Feces with a yellowish tinge indicate a large amount of undigested fiber in the feces and excess starch. Treatment of this condition must be carried out by changing the diet. Recommended protein foods (boiled meat, eggs, cottage cheese), which need to replace raw vegetables, carbohydrates and milk.

Very dark stool with strong stench demonstrates the presence of an alkaline reaction in the intestine, as well as undigested fiber food. In this case, meat and fats should be excluded from the diet, reimbursing calorie intake due to boiled vegetables and fermented milk products.

Intestinal dysbiosis, which is accompanied by diarrhea, must be eliminated with a diet based on "soft" food. Dishes in the diet should be neither hot nor cold, food should be boiled and mashed if possible.

Sometimes a violation of the intestinal flora is manifested by constipation. With this variant of bowel disease, treatment involves the inclusion in the diet of foods with a lot of fiber: apples, cabbage, carrots, apricots. Such a diet should lead to an increase in the content of beneficial flora in the intestine.

Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults

If there are signs that clearly indicate a disturbance in the balance of microflora, it is recommended to consult a doctor. Only a qualified specialist knows everything about intestinal dysbiosis, symptoms, treatment in adults of this disease.

Treatment of dysbiosis in adults primarily involves the elimination of the causes of its occurrence. This means that it is unreasonable to treat one dysbiosis, it is necessary to treat the disease that led to it. If the cause of the condition was the use of antibacterial drugs, it is necessary to complete the course of antibiotic therapy, and if the diet is wrong, return to the original state of your diet. But in most cases, treatment is required to relieve symptoms characteristic of microflora composition disorders, and to restore it. For these purposes, modern medicine recommends three types of treatment:

  • diet,
  • probiotic therapy
  • prebiotic therapy.

Diet for dysbiosis

Treatment of imbalance in the intestinal microflora, especially in the initial stages, primarily involves a special diet. In most cases, it can completely fix the problem. Above, we have already considered options for changing the diet to normalize the stool, now we will consider a number of other nutrition rules in this condition.

The diet should be as balanced as possible. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates, as well as liquid, must be present in sufficient quantities in it.Doctors recommend drinking a glass of warm water half an hour before a meal. In addition, the diet should include five meals, albeit with smaller portions, as well as with a decrease in the load on the intestines before bedtime.

It is important that the following substances are present in the foods used:

  • bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which are saturated with fermented milk products and natural butter,
  • pectins and dietary fiber contained in sufficient quantities in cabbage, carrots, beets and algae,
  • amino acids glutamine and arginine, the sources of which are chicken, beef, dairy products, fish, parsley, spinach, nuts, pumpkin seeds, wheat flour, peas.

Analyzing the above list of products, we can conclude that the diet for the disease is not a list of restrictions at all, but a tasty, healthy and balanced diet. The main thing is not to overeat, not to abuse "heavy" foods, and also to avoid the use of fried, spicy and other, not the most wholesome dishes during this period.

Treatment of severe dysbiosis

How to treat severe dysbiosis? This requires more complex pharmaceutical preparations, which are divided into three conditional groups.

The first of these is antibacterial agents. They act on a certain type of conditionally pathogenic flora, stopping its growth and distribution. Antibacterial drugs (intestinal antiseptics) are prescribed depending on the microorganism that caused the disturbance of microflora.

Opportunistic microorganismUsed antibacterial drug
EnterococciErsefuril, Furazolidone, Enterofuril, Levomycetin, macrolides.
ProteaNevigramon, Sulgin, Ersefuril, Enterofuril.
StaphylococciPyobacteriophage, Staphylococcal bacteriophage.
Candida and other fungal agentsFluconazole, Mikosist, Terbinafine, Ambizom.
ClostridiaMetronidazole, Vancomycin.
Pseudomonas aeruginosaKanamycin, Gentamicin.

Dysbacteriosis can also be treated with bacteriophages. The principle of their action is similar to the principle of antibiotic action. Bacteriophages are special viruses that suppress a certain type of microorganism. Like antibacterial drugs, bacteriophages are divided into groups according to the type of bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcal and so on.

And finally, you need to consider pharmaceutical preparations that are additionally prescribed and which eliminate the symptoms of the disease and its possible consequences.

Immunomodulators - a means to improve the protective properties of the body, the intake of which, if the microflora is disturbed, the intestine positively affects the process of its recovery. The use of immunomodulators should be carried out exclusively as prescribed by the doctor, and preference should be given to herbal remedies: tinctures of echinacea and lemongrass, Propolis, Dibazol.

Antihistamines. They are used to avoid the occurrence of allergic reactions, which can develop against the background of the disease. The simplest of them are Tsetrin, Zirtek and Claritin, which are prescribed in most cases.

Antispasmodics are drugs whose use is often necessary for dysbiosis in case diarrhea is observed. The most popular antispasmodic is drotaverinum (No-Shpa), and specifically Loperamide is recommended for diarrhea. If constipation is observed, then special candles, liquid paraffin, and Forlax are used to eliminate them.

Dysbacteriosis in modern medicine

We already noted at the beginning that dysbiosis as a separate disease is classified only in the territory of the former Soviet Union. Western medicine designates it exclusively as a condition provoked by certain prerequisites.

Discussions about the correctness of a designation for ordinary people hardly make sense, but nevertheless we outline a number of interesting facts.

In the International Classification of Diseases (an official document of the World Health Organization), the diagnosis of "dysbiosis" does not exist. The diagnosis most similar to it is SIBR (bacterial overgrowth syndrome). It is placed when more than 105 microorganisms are detected in a milliliter of aspirate taken from the small intestine.

Western medicine is rather skeptical about the analysis of feces to study the composition of microflora. According to doctors, such a study does not allow any conclusions to be drawn, since the concept of “normal flora” is very vague and purely individual for each person.

In the territory of the former USSR, however, such a concept as intestinal dysbiosis is very popular. Symptoms, treatment of this disease - all this is a popular topic for discussion, both among specialists and among patients. However, do not forget that this term is very actively distributed by manufacturers of medicines. It is difficult to judge whether this is justified, or whether only commercial gain is hidden under this promotion.

Many doctors are very skeptical about treating microflora disorders with the help of probiotics and bacteriophages. In their opinion, microorganisms obtained from outside have practically no chance to take root in the intestines, and bacteriophages are digested in the stomach and do not bring any benefits attributed to them.

So the only true conclusion about dysbiosis is the most controversial disease in modern medicine. But the symptoms, as well as the causes, are quite specific. Undoubtedly, it is necessary to deal with its treatment, and modern methods of therapy make it possible to do this with high efficiency.

General information

Intestinal dysbiosis - a change in the normal bacterial composition of the intestine due to various factors. In violation of the normal balance of the intestinal flora, the replacement of the normal species composition with pathogenic flora is characteristic.

The structure and functions of the human intestine provide the main mechanism of digestion of food and the assimilation of nutrients necessary for the normal functioning of the body. After rough processing in the stomach, food moves to the small intestine, where nutrients are transferred to blood and lymph.

Under normal conditions in small intestine no own microflora, the entry of microorganisms into this section of the intestinal tract occurs in case of impaired function enzymes provoked by various diseases. The ingestion and development of pathogenic microflora in the small intestine causes an infection, which is accompanied by diarrheapain, bloating and rumbling of the abdomen. The development of beneficial non-pathogenic microbes causes only bloating and discomfort.

The main part of the intestinal microflora is localized in the second section - large intestine. In its structure, the large intestine is very different from the small one, it consists of colon colon - ascending, transverse, downwardas well as from blind and sigmoid colon. In the large intestine, the final absorption of water occurs, and the microflora living in this section regulates processes important for health.

Normally, the intestinal microflora is a balanced ecosystem. In this complex, there are more than 500 species of various bacteria, and this is approximately 1.5 kg of live bacteria. The main representatives of the intestinal flora are aerobic lactobacilli and anaerobic bifidobacteria.

Important functions of the intestinal microflora are the regulation of metabolism bile acids and cholesterol, normalization of the enzymatic breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, as well as the digestion of nucleic acids, high molecular weight carbohydrates, fiber. Microorganisms in the intestinal flora increase the body's resistance to negative environmental influences.This is due to their participation in electrolyte metabolism, the synthesis of vitamins from group B, ascorbic acid and vitamin K, as well as in the synthesis of substances having antibacterial activity.

In the qualitative composition of the intestinal microflora, there are bacteria that play the role of natural biosorbent. They contribute to the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substrates and a change in the formula of toxic substances, which makes them harmless to humans.

In fact, a balanced intestinal ecosystem is an activator of our immune system, forcing it to be in good shape and respond when in danger. Under the influence of microbes it is stimulated lymphoid apparatusprovides a constant synthesis of immunoglobulins, reduces the permeability of blood vessels for the penetration of toxic products.

Important functions that the intestinal microflora performs are to improve synthesis histamine and amino acids, in particular, it is indispensable in the body tryptophanas well as assimilation vitamin D and calcium salts.

The number and species composition of microorganisms in the large intestine is constantly changing, while maintaining a qualitative relationship, in other words, dynamic equilibrium is maintained - intestinal microflora balance. Such changes occur depending on the season, age, lifestyle, environment and mental state of a person. Conditionally microflora is divided into resident and transitory, as well as non-pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic, that is, useful in a small composition and ratio. Violation of the normal balance is intestinal dysbiosis, a sharp change in the composition and an increase in the number of pathogenic microbes leads to impaired functions and the development of diseases.

The occurrence of intestinal dysbiosis can be caused by various factors, most often it is an unbalanced diet, immunodeficiency, intestinal infections, prolonged use antibioticshormonal and non-steroidal drugs. The cause of dysbiosis can also be the treatment of diseases. chemo and radiation therapy. When prescribing therapy, prophylaxis of intestinal dysbiosis is mandatory.

In the classification of dysbacteriosis, four stages of development are distinguished, and primary and secondary dysbacteriosis are also divided. In the primary disease, microflora changes, and then the inflammatory process of the mucous membranes of the intestinal tract occurs. Secondary dysbiosis, as a rule, is a complication of diseases of the small or large intestine, which determines the clinical picture and the main symptoms.

First stage intestinal dysbiosis is characterized by a slight development of pathogenic flora and a moderate decrease in the volume of beneficial bacteria. Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in the first stage, as a rule, are absent.

For second stage a critical decrease in the composition of obligate flora - bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, as well as the rapid development of pathogenic microbes is characteristic. The first symptoms of intestinal dysfunction are present.

Third stage differs in the inflammatory process with damage to the intestinal walls. Intestinal disorders become chronic.

Fourth stage intestinal dysbiosis is the onset of acute intestinal infection. At this stage, general exhaustion, anemia is characteristic. An imbalance in the intestinal microflora shifts toward pathogenic microbes and fungi. Useful flora in the intestine is present in very small proportions.

Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis

The clinical picture of the development and course of dysbiosis depends on both the stage and the microbiological variant of the disorder. The characteristic symptoms of dysbiosis are stool disorders, diarrheadue to the formation and accumulation in the intestine of a large number of bile acids, which delay the absorption of water and cause changes in the structure of the intestinal mucosa. In addition, deconjugated bile acids have a laxative property, thereby provoking unstable stools.

With age-related dysbiosis, frequent constipation, especially with a concomitant disease such as atherosclerosis or chronic colitis. Constipation occurs due to a weakening effect of microflora on the motility of the large intestine.

As you can see, the symptoms of dysbiosis are diverse, but the main one is flatulence. Increased gas formation in the colon and changes in the intestinal wall lead to impaired absorption and removal of gases. From here there are such signs as an unpleasant odor and taste in the mouth, bloating, burning in the myocardium, heart rhythm disturbances. With a sharp increase in flatulence occurs dyspeptic asthma, which is characterized by sharp shortness of breath and bloating, dilated pupils and cold extremities.

A common sign of dysbiosis is also abdominal pain. Monotonous, pulling or bursting pains are characteristic. Basically, pain is accompanied by flatulence and intensifies by the end of the day. Severe colicky pain in the abdomen can be observed. After eating, rumbling occurs in the abdomen, gastrocecal reflex.

With intestinal dysbiosis, a syndrome occurs gastrointestinal dyspepsia. Appetite remains, there is a feeling of fullness in the epigastric region, aerophagiabelching and nausea. After a while appears dyskinesia due to impaired intestinal motility. This condition occurs when the intestines are irritated by acid fermentation products. In the intestine, an excess of CO2 gases, methane, hydrogen sulfide is formed, which further enhances flatulence. At the fourth stage of intestinal dysbiosis, putrefactive dyspepsia can be observed. The processes of fermentation and decay in the intestine lead to strong changes in the composition of feces.

An imbalance of microflora leads to violations of its basic functions, signs appear polyhypovitaminosis. Lack of body thiamine leads to impaired intestinal motility, a tendency to atony, headachemyocardial dystrophy, suffering peripheral nervous system. Patients may experience depression, irritability, increased salivation, which are signs of deficiency nicotinic acid. Failure riboflavin manifests itself stomatitis, dermatitis on the wings of the nose, hair loss and changes in the nail plates.

Often with dysbiosis observed anemia. This condition occurs due to a weakening of synthesis. folic acid and cyanocobalamin. Their competitive use by both pathogenic and beneficial bacteria leads to a sharp decrease in the number of these elements - normochromicless often hyperchromic anemia. Food allergy may also be a symptom of dysbiosis. Increased activity of intestinal microflora leads to increased histamine production and an allergic reaction to certain foods occurs.

An imbalance of microflora can have different symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis, it depends on the type of microbe prevailing in the flora. The most common representatives of pathogenic flora are staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida mushrooms, misogasey, aspergillus. The type of dysbiosis can be established by laboratory diagnostics, there are differences in the clinical picture of the course of the disease.

Fungal intestinal dysbiosis occurs due to the use of antibacterial drugs.The use of antibiotics disrupts the balance of flora, beneficial bacteria that produce substances with a fungistatic effect die, thereby giving way to fungi that do not respond to antibiotics.

In first place among fungal dysbacterioses is candidiasis. Propagation of yeast-like fungi Candida albicans causes superficial damage to the mucous membranes. Candidamycosis of the intestines and stomach, as a rule, accompanies other diseases.

With a mild course of the disease, the clinical signs of dysbiosis appear to a small extent. Slight abdominal pain, loose stools may be observed, the temperature is most often normal. With a more severe course, there is low-grade fever, which lasts long enough, headaches, excessive sweating appear. In the area of ​​the sigmoid colon, pain, bloating, heaviness are felt. The stool is frequent, plentiful with an admixture of mucus.

Among fungal dysbacterioses also stand out mucoromycosis and aspergillosis. These diseases in the intestinal form are much less common than candidiasis. The prognosis of the disease is often unfavorable. Muromycosis develops as a result of the pathogen entering the intestinal tract with concomitant diseases. Aspergillosis, in turn, may occur after prolonged antibiotic therapy. The development and course of the disease is acute, severe. Frequent symptoms of diarrhea, changes in the intestines are hemorrhagic-necrotic in nature.

In patients ulcerative colitis or chronic enterocolitis, as well as in persons who have previously suffered dysentery, salmonellosis and other acute intestinal infections, intestinal dysbiosis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa may occur. More often, Pseudomonas dysbiosis occurs in patients with reduced immunity, it can also be a consequence of food poisoning.

According to morphological characteristics distinguish catarrhal and fibro-purulent, with hemorrhages, foci of necrosis, Pseudomonas dysbiosis. Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to foodborne toxic infection: abdominal pain, frequent repeated vomiting, loose stool with mucus. After 7-10 days, paralytic ileus may occur, cardiovascular failure which can be fatal. Pseudomonas dysbiosis caused by excessive use of antibacterial drugs has a less pronounced picture and a good prognosis.

Staphylococcal Dysbiosis the intestine also develops after acute intestinal infections, past diseases of the digestive system, the long-term toxic effects of antibiotics coupled with a deficiency of vitamins. With a mild uncomplicated course of staphylococcal dysbiosis, minor symptoms of intoxication, impaired appetite, weakness, as well as a mild inflammatory process are characteristic. Rises in temperature are accompanied by chills.

With an average and severe clinical course of dysbiosis, clinical signs are more pronounced, the temperature rises significantly, up to 38-39 degrees, chills, sweating are observed. Intoxication is manifested by headaches, weakness, and abdominal pain. Liquid stool up to 10 times a day, with impurities of mucus, blood and pus. In severe cases, dehydration of the cardiovascular system is observed.

Diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis

The diagnosis of dysbiosis is based on laboratory tests and characteristic signs of the disease. The main tests for suspected intestinal microflora disturbance are stool crops, urine and bile for dysbiosis, as well as coprological examination of feces. The latest research makes it possible to detect iodophilic microflora, large amounts of intracellular starch and digested fiber, which is an indicator of the presence of the disease.

Diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis by sowing feces for dysbiosis does not always give a reliable result. The advantage of bacteriological research is the ability to cultivate a specific type of microbes and determine their quantitative ratio. Such an analysis gives a good result if there is a suspicion staphylococcal or fungal intestinal bacteriosis. In addition, this method is the cheapest and most affordable of all laboratory tests. If necessary, biotap studies of the walls of the small intestine or inoculation of a graduate student of the contents of the small intestine are carried out. Due to the technical complexity of such an analysis, it is prescribed extremely rarely.

More widely used in the diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis polymerase chain reactionPCR diagnostics determination of the types of microorganisms. With its help, it is possible to identify representatives of the intestinal microflora that are not in the intestinal lumen. And although today this method is the main one, its accuracy leaves much to be desired. The information content of the analysis is very low, which is associated with a limited range of microbes that can be detected with PCR diagnostics.

For diagnosis, chemical research methods can be used, this mass spectrometry and gas liquid chromatography. A study of the intestinal contents is carried out to determine the concentration of microbial waste products, on the basis of which the composition and ratio of intestinal microflora are calculated. A significant minus of such a study is its cost, requirements for equipment and calculations.

Fungal bacteriosis is diagnosed in the background enterocolitis and enteritisthat are provoked by prolonged antibiotic therapy. Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis, in particular bloody mucous diarrhea, indicate the presence of mycoses, and laboratory tests confirm the diagnosis. Assigned studies of scrapings of the intestinal mucosa and analysis of feces for mycelium.

Most often, confirmation of the diagnosis occurs unreasonably. There is no clear concept of the norm of intestinal biocenosis, the composition of microflora is different in different patients, and its constant changes do not allow to accurately calculate the quality ratio. Full-fledged scientific research on this issue has never been conducted. What, in fact, is the difficulty in diagnosing dysbiosis. It is also important that in the classification of diseases such a disease as intestinal dysbiosis does not exist, about which there is constant discussion.

Signs of intestinal dysbiosis

Dysbacteriosis can manifest itself in different ways, depending on the reasons that provoked it.

The most common causes of pathology:

  • Increased flatulence and flatulence, which causes significant discomfort to the patient.
  • Violation of the stool, which is manifested by diarrhea or constipation.

  • Pain in the abdomen. The pain can be aching, bursting or stitching, be constant or spasmodic. In young children (infants) it is manifested by severe colic.
  • Other dyspeptic disorders: nausea, vomiting, unpleasant belching, loss of appetite.
  • General weakness of the body, lethargy, lethargy and fatigue.
  • Deterioration of the condition of the skin, hair and nails, due to a lack of vitamins and poor absorption of vitamins from the digestive tract. Perhaps the development or intensification of food allergies.

What is dysbiosis?

Intestinal dysbiosis (also dysbiosis) - this is a state of microbial imbalance on the body or inside it. With dysbiosis, the ratio of beneficial and opportunistic microorganisms is violated, for example, in the intestine or in the reproductive organs.

The intestines of an adult normally contain about 2-3 kg of various microorganisms (about 500 species). 60% of all microorganisms are settled in the digestive tract.

Microorganisms help digest food, synthesize vitamins, remove toxins and carcinogens, break down all unnecessary elements. The main representatives of the intestinal flora are aerobic lactobacilli and anaerobic bifidobacteria.

In the human body, three types of bacteria take part in the processes of digestion of food:

  • beneficial (bifidobacteria, lactobacilli). Maintain the ratio of other bacteria in the stomach, prevent the development of allergic diseases, weakening of the immune system and many other negative effects on the human body. They also control the amount of harmful bacteria,
  • neutral. They live in a certain place. Do not bring much benefit or harm,
  • harmful (candida fungus, staphylococcus, streptococcus). Provoke various diseases and disruptions in the gastrointestinal tract.

Prebiotics

Such a remedy for intestinal dysbiosis contains a nutritional base that favorably affects the reproduction and development of beneficial bacteria, is able to bind and remove toxins from feces. The components of the medication are not absorbed by the upper digestive tract.

To eliminate the imbalance of microorganisms, the following drugs are recommended:

  • Lactulose, Goodluck, Normase, Lactusan, Exportal - as part of indigestible disaccharides.
  • GIT Transit prebiotic - extracts of lemon, artichoke, green tea, fructooligosaccharides are present.
  • Hilak Forte - contains lactic acid.

How does intimate life change with dysbiosis?

Normal condition of vaginal microflora

If there is a decrease in the number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the vaginal environment, one of the symptoms may be a dry vaginal wall. Women whose sex life is irregular may not notice this symptom, the only manifestation of which at the initial stage of the pathology will be moderate discomfort and itching. But if sexual relations occur periodically, a woman may note that sexual contact has become more painful, and feelings of intimacy have changed their physical and emotional colors.

Pain and discomfort during intercourse appear in three stages:

  • the introduction of the penis into the vagina (the most painful process with severe dysbiosis),
  • increased partner activity (stronger and rougher movements),
  • the period after the end of intimacy (the first 1-2 hours).

In some cases, the pain syndrome can be localized not only in the vagina. Drawing pain can be felt in the lower abdomen, on the left or right side of the pelvis. Bacterial dysbiosis can occur against the background of inflammatory diseases of the uterus, ovaries or bladder, therefore, if there is a pain syndrome of any localization and intensity, it is necessary to check the functioning of the genitourinary system and pass a urine and blood test.

What happens when the microflora of the vagina is disturbed

Note! Discomfort and pain during sex are caused by insufficient production of vaginal lubrication or its complete absence. In most cases, women with disturbed microflora do not feel pleasure from intimacy and cannot reach orgasm. Such violations should also be the reason for contacting a specialist, especially if such symptoms did not appear before.

Depending on the cause of the occurrence, intestinal dysbiosis syndrome in modern medicine is divided into several types.

  • Dysbacteriosis that occurs in healthy people:
  • Professional (violations occur due to harmful professional activities)
  • Age (flora is disturbed due to aging of the body)
  • Nutritional (associated with malnutrition)
  • Seasonal (flora changes depending on the time of year, mainly in the cold season).

  • acute (up to 30 days),
  • protracted (up to 4 months): with clinical manifestations (continuous or recurrent) and without clinical manifestations,
  • chronic (more than 4 months): with clinical manifestations (continuous or recurrent) and without clinical manifestations.

Drugs and their action

Choosing a cheap medicine, you should look not only at the price tag. The main criteria are the composition, form of release, indications, restrictions. The price reflects not so much quality as the manufacturer’s costs for clinical trials, components, and drug advertising.

GroupsBrand NamesHow to use
Intestinal sorbentsActivated Carbon, White CarbonActivated charcoal is taken one tablet per 1 kg of body weight. White coal - one or two tablets before meals
Pro-, prebiotics, symbiotics“Acipol”, “Linex”, “Yogulact”, “Yogurt” (capsules), “Normoflorin-B”, “Hilak forte” (drops), “Sporobacterin” liquid, “Evitalia”, “Eubicor”Take 30-40 minutes before meals (unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer). Infants are dissolved in milk, water or a mixture, given with food
Digestive enzymesPanzinorm, Mezim Forte, Hermitage, Mikrazim, FestalDrink pills before every meal
ProkineticsDomperidon, MotiliumTake one tablet / capsule before meals.

Many patients have a question: what is better to take from intestinal dysbiosis when taking antibiotics? Experts convince of the maximum effectiveness of Linex and Maxilak, which reduce the recovery period of the intestinal flora from six months to six weeks.

Pregnant women before birth are prescribed "Vagilak" from dysbiosis. The doctor selects the duration of therapy individually. The average daily dose is one capsule twice a day.

Drug compatibility

Undesirable interactions of probiotics with other drugs not detected in clinical trials and in practice. It should be borne in mind that such drugs are not taken with an antibiotic at a time.

Important! A probiotic is given two hours after the antibiotic.

Intestinal adsorbents may decrease the absorption of other drugs. while taking it. Mezim, Festal, Creon reduce the absorption of iron by the walls of the gastrointestinal tract. Antacids are not taken with enzymes, since the effectiveness of pancreatin is reduced.

A very large list of undesirable drug interactions in prokinetics.. Motilium and Domperidone are not taken together with antacids, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and some other drugs.

Drug therapy

The use of medications is intended to eliminate the symptoms, restore the concentration of beneficial bacteria, increase immunity:

  1. To relieve the symptoms of dysbiosis, it is recommended to use drugs with an antispasmodic effect - Drotaverina, No-shpa, Papaverina.
  2. Apply laxatives and antidiarrheal - Forlax, Lactulose, Loperamide.
  3. If necessary, cholagogue (Legalon) and drugs that improve the production of enzymes are prescribed - Mezim, Festal, Pancreatin.

The following groups of medicines for complex treatment are shown:

  1. Antibiotics. Their task is to destroy pathogens. You can not use it yourself, because you need to determine the sensitivity of bacteria to drugs.
  2. Bacteriophages. Viral agents that can penetrate into a foreign microorganism and destroy it from the inside.
  3. Intestinal antiseptics. Used to reduce the infectious process.
  4. Probiotics Contain live bacteria necessary for the normal operation of the digestive tract.
  5. Prebiotics. The composition contains components that stimulate the development of beneficial microflora.
  6. Immunomodulators. Designed to simulate natural defense.
  7. Multivitamins. Make up for the lack of substances A, D, E, group B, etc.

The main direction is the elimination of the cause of dysbiosis.Otherwise, the restoration of balance will be short-lived, and soon the patient will again feel the symptoms of pathology.

In any disease, pregnancy is a risk factor when using many medications.

Absolutely harmless, at first glance, drugs and herbs can provoke an increase in uterine tone, relaxation of the cervix, cause cramping of the uterine muscle tissue, which is dangerous by spontaneous abortion, early childbirth.

Some drugs can delay the development of the embryo and fetus, have teratogenic properties, leading to intrauterine deformities.

In addition, any medications can provoke acute allergic reactions up to laryngeal edema, a rapidly developing anaphylactic shock.

Since many pharmacological agents are used for dysbiosis, when waiting for the birth of a baby, special attention is required to the contraindications described in the instructions, which even the doctor does not always know about.

Danger during pregnancy:

  • Sumamed, Zitrolide (Azithromycin), Furadonin, Metronidazole, Trichopolum. Ciprofloxacin, Ciprolet, Nolitsin, Levomycetin, Biseptol, Ersefuril,
  • antispasmodics, which include bromine (Decitel), can cause neurological disorders in the fetus.
  • laxatives for constipation Loperamide (Imodium), Senna,
  • among medicinal herbs and plants are especially undesirable and even dangerous: tansy, wormwood, aralia, barberry, oregano, juniper, buckthorn, nutmeg, mint, celandine, lovage,
  • products - garlic, rhubarb, radish, parsley.

The list of drugs that can be used to treat intestinal dysbiosis is quite wide. They differ in action, cost and manufacturers, the form of release.

Release formDescription
Tablets
  1. Enzymes. In violation of the microbial balance in the intestine, the production of enzymes necessary for digesting food fails. In this case, the doctor prescribes enzymes in tablets (Mezim Forte, Pancreatin, Creon).
  2. Probiotic drugs. Acipol (capsules), Primadofilus Bifidus (capsules), Linex, Bactistatin (a complex preparation containing probiotics, prebiotics and a sorbent), Bifiform, Lactofiltrum, Maxilak (a synbiotic containing lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and prebiotics).
  3. Sorbents. Activated Carbon, Filtrum.
  4. Antimicrobial agents. Often, antibiotics are prescribed to treat dysbacteriosis to destroy pathogenic microflora. After which microflora is restored by colonizing the intestines with beneficial bacteria. Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin - Clavulanate, Levomycetin.
  5. Antibacterial medicines. Metronidazole (also available in the form of suppositories), Nystatin, Fluconazole, Furazolidone, Enterol (with antidiarrheal effect), Kipferon.
  6. Antiulcer drugs. Omez in capsules is used for increased acidity of the stomach.
  7. Spasmodics. Duspatalin (eliminates pain in the intestines without affecting its peristaltic function).
  8. Homeopathic medicines. Homeopathy is used to treat dysbiosis in adults and children. Nux vomica, Mercury, Pulsatilla, Argentum nitricum, Reum, Brionia, Natrium sulfuricum, Hamomilla, Aloe, Calcarea carbonica, Belladonna.
Powders
  1. Antidiarrheal agent. Smecta.
  2. Sorbent. Polysorb (powder for suspension).
  3. Probiotic. Bifidumbacterin (lyophilisate in ampoules), Normobact (dietary supplement probiotic and prebiotic in one remedy).
  4. Antiulcer drug. Omez (powder for the preparation of a solution is prescribed for increased acidity of gastric juice).
  5. Antibiotic. Ceftriaxone (powder for solution for injections).
  6. Probiotic. Evitalia (dietary supplement powder with a vitamin complex).
Suspensions
  1. Antibacterial agents. Sextafag, Amoxiclav, Pyobacteriophage (solution), Chlorophyllipt (solution), Bacteriophage (solution).
  2. Adsorbents in the form of a gel. Almagel, Phosphalugel, Enterosgel.
  3. Laxatives. Dufalac.
  4. Probiotics Bifidum (liquid bifidobacteria concentrate).
DropsAntidiarrheal agent. Hilak forte.

Allergic reaction

To date, the fact that in some cases allergies in children are provoked by changes in the intestinal microflora, i.e. dysbiosis.

It is known that with dysbiosis, the integrity of the intestinal tissue barrier is severely impaired, as a result of which allergens enter the bloodstream. Disease in women can cause asthma, food allergies, or eczema.

In addition, with dysbacteriosis of the vagina in a person, the appearance of symptoms such as:

  • Itching
  • Redness of the skin on the labia.

Vaginal dysbiosis

With dysbiosis of the vagina, symptoms such as:

  • Bad smell of secretions
  • Abundant vaginal discharge,
  • Dry genital organs,
  • A small amount of lubricant during sex,
  • Change the color of the selection.

Video on the topic: Vaginal dysbiosis and vaginal infections.

Treatment of dysbiosis in adults

With a mild degree of imbalance in the intestinal microflora, eliminating these causes with the help of a balanced diet, taking prebiotics or probiotics may be enough. In severe violation, dietary supplementation is also indicated along with complex antimicrobial therapy.

How to treat intestinal dysbiosis? Treatment measures consist of:

  • elimination of excessive bacterial seeding of the small intestine,
  • restoration of normal microbial flora of the colon,
  • improving intestinal digestion and absorption,
  • restoration of impaired intestinal motility,
  • stimulation of the reactivity of the body.

Medications

For the treatment of dysbiosis, drugs are used that help restore normal intestinal flora. Usually, one of the following groups is selected:

  1. Antibacterial drugs are necessary primarily to suppress the excessive growth of microbial flora in the small intestine. The most widely used antibiotics are tetracyclines, penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones (tarid, nitroxoline) and metronidazole.
  2. Bacteriophages (intestinal bacteriophage, staphylococcal bacteriophage, pyobacteriophage, coliprotein bacteriophage, etc.),
  3. Antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, penicillins, macrolides, aminoglycosides, etc.),
  4. Probiotics for dysbiosis (sporobacterin, enterol, cereobiogen, bactisubtil, etc.).
  5. Antifungal agents. They are prescribed when an increased amount of yeast is detected in the intestinal contents.
  6. Enzymes are prescribed in case of severe digestive disorders. Mezim tablets 1 tablet 3 times a day, before meals. In order to improve the absorption function, essentiale, legalon or carlsil are prescribed, since they stabilize the membranes of the intestinal epithelium. The propulsive function of the intestines is improved by imodium (loperamide) and trimebutin (debridate).
  7. Sorbents are prescribed for severe signs of intoxication. Activated charcoal is prescribed for 5-7 tablets per 1 time, for 5 days.

Prescribe medications for dysbiosis, determine their dosage and duration of admission can only be a doctor. Self-medication threatens complications.

With prolonged antibiotic treatment, it is imperative to include in the therapy a special diet containing products rich in beneficial bacteria, antifungal and immunostimulating, as well as antihistamine therapy.

The degree of dysbiosisAdult treatment
1
  • Functional nutrition, vitamin therapy, enterosorbents,
  • Prebiotics.
2With 2 degrees of dysbiosis, it is recommended:
  • Functional nutrition, vitamin therapy, enterosorbents,
  • Probiotics
3With 3 degrees of intestinal dysbiosis, drug treatment is as follows:
  • Functional nutrition, vitamin therapy, enterosorbents,
  • Antibacterial therapy, bacteriophages, intestinal antiseptics,
  • Probiotics

Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis is prescribed in a complex manner depending on the degree of the disease. Since the disease develops under the influence of many factors, it is important to eliminate the cause of its development, otherwise taking probiotics will not give a positive effect. The elimination of foci of infection and chronic diseases is the main task in the treatment.

Bacteriophages

With some forms of dysbiosis in the intestine, a certain type of microbes multiplies in large quantities, for example, staphylococcus, proteus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc.

In such cases, the doctor prescribes bacteriophages - viruses that act directly on bacteria, and not on body cells.

Pyobacteriophages

These antibacterial agents are available in liquid form. Penetrating into the cells, the particles of the bacteriophage multiply and thus displace pathogenic microorganisms.

Ways to use the solution:

Dosage - strictly as prescribed by the doctor. One of the advantages of this drug is the possibility of its use with other drugs, including antibiotics.

Sextaphagi

This is a liquid mixture consisting of sterile filters of certain microbes.

The method of application depends on the nature of the focus of infection. In case of local use - these are lotions, rinses, irrigation. The duration of treatment is several weeks, 1-3 doses are prescribed per day.

Note! It was noted that treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults is effective if drugs of this type are taken with a liquid concentrate of bifidobacteria.

It also reduces the likelihood of allergic reactions and signs of intoxication.

Diet and proper nutrition

There is no special diet for each person, just follow some rules, avoid unwashed fruits, low-quality foods and take food every three hours in small portions. It is important to eat hot liquid food every day: soup, broth.

The basic principles of proper nutrition for dysbiosis:

  • regular meals at the same time,
  • eating warm food (within 25-40 degrees) and avoiding too cold or hot food,
  • Avoidance of aggressive and spicy foods
  • thorough chewing of food,
  • eating frequently (every two and a half hours) and in small portions,
  • Drink plenty of water, but not during meals (so as not to interfere with the digestion of food).

Subject to a diet, the following foods are allowed to be consumed:

  • white or rye bread - not fresh, but yesterday,
  • crackers
  • soups on low-fat broths with mashed cereals and vegetables,
  • steamed or stewed meat dishes,
  • lean meats
  • low-fat boiled fish, steamed, stewed or fried without breading,
  • vegetables (excluding cabbage, legumes and mushrooms) in boiled, baked form or steamed,
  • fruits and berries as part of jelly, compote, mashed potatoes or mousse,
  • baked or raw grated apples,
  • low-fat dairy products,
  • butter in small quantities,
  • spice-free sauces,
  • all drinks except alcoholic, carbonated, kvass and fruit drinks.

Along with the diet, probiotics and prebiotics can be prescribed to patients. These drugs improve bowel function and restore a healthy flora.

Preparations for the normalization of microflora

Among the most popular drugs for normalizing intestinal microflora, Linex, Acylact, Acipol, Bifiform, Enterol, Vitaflor, Lactobacterin, Hilak, Biovestin-Lacto, Normoflorin and others can be distinguished.

The best prebiotic is considered Hilak Forte. This drug can be taken not only by adult patients, but also very young children.

Alternative treatment

Due to the fact that many medicinal herbs have antibacterial, astringent, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. They are widely used in the treatment of dysbiosis as an effective, auxiliary medicine for the destruction of pathogenic intestinal microflora.

The whole charm of medicinal herbal remedies is that they do not cause damage to beneficial trace elements. Thus, the destruction of harmful microbes occurs, the restoration and cleansing of the intestines.

Treatment regimen

To treat dysbiosis, you need to adhere to the following plan:

  • Exposure to pathogens is a destructive effect.
  • Intestinal colonization with beneficial bacteria and germs.
  • Normalization of the bacterial balance, its regular maintenance.
  • Restoring the optimal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.

Only in complex therapeutic therapy can the desired result be achieved. Do not take therapeutic measures on your own, trust the professionals.

Which doctor should I contact if there are signs of this pathology? The answer is to the gastroenterologist. This narrow specialist is in every medical institution.

To begin with, it is recommended to contact the regional hospital, if there is no gastroenterologist, then feel free to go to the regional hospital.

To get an admission ticket, you need to have a card of the medical institution with which the doctor you are interested in is working.

So, you got an appointment with a gastroenterologist. Now you should tell him about your problem. An important rule: be honest with the doctor. Remember that the diagnosis of dysbiosis is a complex process.

Why? It's all a symptomatology similar to the signs of other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.

After a gastroenterologist suspects a violation of the intestinal microflora, he should find out which pathogenic flora is present on your intestinal walls.

This is necessary to determine the medications that will have to be taken daily. Also, the specialist must establish the deficiency of which microbes caused the bacterial imbalance in the body.

This knowledge will help the gastroenterologist to adjust the therapy in such a way as to replenish the number of missing microorganisms and export pathogenic flora.

Important! Do not count on a quick relief of the symptoms of dysbiosis. The treatment of this pathology is a long process.

Taking medication

Without drugs, the functioning of the intestinal microflora cannot be normalized. To export pathogenic bacteria from the body, you need to regularly take prebiotics and probiotics.

What are these funds? They contain a large number of useful micronutrients that a person needs for normal life.

In other words, taking probiotics and prebiotics helps to achieve the main goal in the treatment of microflora disorders - normalizing the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.

Also, to stimulate the immune system, doctors prescribe antibiotics to patients:

  • Tetracycline.
  • Cephalospirin.
  • Penicillin.
  • Metronidozole.

If the dysbiosis has a yeast etymology, it is advisable to take antifungal agents. For example, medications such as Enterol and Bactisubtil are often prescribed.

Preparatory measures recommended. To achieve maximum treatment effectiveness, experts recommend cleaning your body with sorbents a week before taking medication.

Once in the stomach, they act like a sponge. Sorbents absorb toxins and pathogenic microbes, which lead to dysfunction of internal organs.

In pharmacies you can find a large number of different sorbents. The most popular medication in this group is activated carbon.You can also purchase Smecta, Enterosgel, Lactofiltrum, Atoxil, etc.

With the help of such drugs as Hilak-Forte or Dufalac, useful microorganisms that stimulate the functioning of the intestine can be "injected" into the intestines.

If after taking them you often feel the urge to defecate - this is normal. Often occurring desire to empty the intestine appears due to the normalization of its work.

Therefore, such a sign is a good result, indicating that you are recovering.

Ethnoscience

Folk sages know about the best ways to treat dysbiosis at home. Before you use one of the "grandmother" tips, be sure to consult with a gastroenterologist.

So, we will consider the most effective methods of normalizing the functioning of microflora at home:

  • Propolis. Bee products are excellent natural antiseptics. It is recommended to purchase alcohol-based propolis tincture. Take it for medicinal purposes should be three times a day for 10-15 drops. The recommended course of treatment is 1.5 months. If such therapy is followed, then the pathogenic microflora will be completely destroyed, and the functioning of the intestine will be restored. Before use, propolis alcohol tincture should be diluted with a small amount of mineral water. It is advisable to drink the dosage of the medicine in one gulp 30 minutes before the meal.
  • Garlic. This is an excellent antibacterial agent that helps to disinfect the body. The use of garlic for medicinal purposes contributes to the rapid and effective export of pathogenic bacteria from the body that provoke dysfunction of the internal organs. The healing effect of garlic is achieved thanks to its antibacterial components. Thus, this vegetable has an anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic and intestinal restorative effect on the body. To achieve the desired effect, you should eat 1 clove of garlic every 2 days. If such therapy does not provoke a deterioration in well-being, you can extend it.
  • Herbal harvest. This method of combating dysbiosis is one of the easiest, but this does not reduce its effectiveness. So, to prepare a healing herbal infusion, take dry chamomile flowers, rose hips, plantain, St. John's wort and millennial. Herbs need to be mixed in the same amount. Put the herb in a container filled with boiling water and place it in a water bath. It is recommended to keep the container on the stove for 25-30 minutes. Now you have an herbal healing medicine with antiseptic properties. Drink a glass of such medicine at bedtime for 7 days.
  • Medicinal plants. There are many plants that contribute to the normalization of the intestinal microflora. Among them - sage, eucalyptus, blood soup, calamus, coltsfoot, etc. Of these, it is recommended to cook compotes and make infusions. To enhance the effectiveness of drugs from such plants, use an additional ingredient in the recipe - lingonberries or blueberries.
  • Sour berries and fruits. You can only include them in your diet if dysbiosis is not accompanied by diarrhea. Otherwise, eating foods like currants or pomegranates can make you feel unwell.

Above we talked about the fact that when the functioning of the intestinal microflora is disrupted, the patient has a malfunction

The recipe for garlic yogurt

This is a very useful cure for dysbiosis, which is easy to prepare at home. Step by step recipe:

  1. Wait until the milk is sour. Now you have the main raw materials for cooking.
  2. Now you need to ferment sour milk with bread. It is advisable to use brown bread.
  3. Insist previously prepared mixture for 1 day. After that, take the crackers of brown bread and rub them with garlic.
  4. Dip the garlic crackers in the sour milk.
  5. Infuse mass for 3 hours. Now you have an excellent medicine for the normalization of intestinal microflora.

This recipe is recommended to follow in order to regulate the bacterial balance in the body.

Above, we found that a violation of the intestinal microflora is almost always accompanied by a malfunction in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.

As medical practice shows, most patients who have encountered this problem suffer from constipation.

In this case, they need a medicine that helps stimulate the movement of stool in the intestines.

If your constipation is accompanied by a pain in the stomach that is spastic in nature, prepare dill water or peppermint tea. Regardless of the choice of medicine, you will help the stomach to normalize the work.

Who is at risk?

Vaginal dysbiosis can develop at any age. Often, pathology is diagnosed in adolescent girls during puberty. There may be several reasons for this:

  • increased synthesis of sex hormones and the associated hormonal imbalance,
  • weak immunity, which can be caused by frequent respiratory infections, malnutrition, compliance with the rest regimen and mental and physical labor,
  • poor personal hygiene of the intimate area,
  • hypothermia.

Complications of vaginal dysbiosis

Parents of girls should know that up to 17-18 years of age, vaginal dysbiosis in this age group of patients can be manifested only by intense itching in the inguinal and anorectal region. Pathological discharge and other signs of disturbed microflora may be absent, so you need to carefully monitor the condition of the child and notice manifestations of discomfort. It is very important to establish a warm and trusting relationship with the child, so that if such problems arise, the girl does not hesitate to inform her mother about them.

In adult women, there are many causes of bacterial dysbiosis. Most of the provoking factors are associated with a negative effect on the immune system, which weakens and cannot inhibit the growth of pathogenic flora.

Causes of violation of the vaginal microflora

These factors include:

  • bad habits,
  • unbalanced diet with insufficient intake of proteins, carbohydrates, fiber and lipids (or a violation of their balance among themselves),
  • work in the conditions of constant pollution (in industrial warehouses, factories, industries),
  • chronic stress
  • taking hormonal drugs (e.g., oral contraceptives),
  • frequent change of sexual partners (subject to intimate contact without a condom).

The state of the microflora of the vagina and intestines is negatively affected by the long-term use of antibacterial drugs. The likelihood of pathology increases if a woman underwent prolonged treatment with drugs from the group of macrolides and cephalosporins. It is these groups of antibiotics that have the maximum list of side effects (compared with penicillin drugs) and have the most aggressive effect on the microflora of the female body.

Additional causes of vaginal microflora

Specialists distinguish several categories of women who are at risk for the development of bacterial dysbiosis. These include women:

  • older than 50 years
  • in a state of menopause
  • pregnant
  • suffering diseases of the endocrine system (diabetes mellitus, disorders of the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, adrenal cortex),
  • overweight.

All these categories of patients are recommended to pay special attention to the prevention of dysbacteriosis: eat a balanced diet, include a lot of seasonal berries and fruits, herbs, increase physical activity, give up bad habits, walk more often, conduct tempering activities.If necessary, you can use medical preventive methods (1-2 times a year after consulting a gynecologist).

Diagnosis of vaginal dysbiosis

Pathology characteristic

Before determining methods of dealing with an unpleasant condition, it is necessary to understand what a "mysterious" phenomenon is hidden under the concept of intestinal dysbiosis (or dysbiosis).

To do this, refer to the anatomy. The intestines of a healthy person are populated by certain bacteria - such microorganisms are normal microflora. They perform many useful functions, one of which is supporting local immunity.

As a result of some factors (taking antibiotics, poor nutrition, etc.), microflora are disturbed, and immune defense is seriously reduced. As a result, pathogens begin to colonize the intestines. This starts the process of decay in the digestive system.


Dysbacteriosis is a violation of the composition of the intestinal microflora

A violation of the composition of the intestinal microflora (quantitative and / or qualitative) is called dysbiosis. You can suspect the development of pathology by the following symptoms:

  • violation of the stool (patients suffer from a constant alternation of diarrhea and constipation),
  • putrefactive smell of feces,
  • increased gas formation,
  • signs of decay: rumbling, bloating, belching, colic, nausea, heaviness, heartburn,
  • bad breath
  • weakness, allergies,
  • signs of anemia: insomnia, fatigue, irritability, drowsiness, memory impairment, pallor of the integument, fragility of hair and nails, shortness of breath, heart discomfort.


You can suspect the development of dysbiosis by the characteristic discomfort in the abdomen: pain, gas, diarrhea, rumbling

Types of disease

Intestinal dysbiosis is always a secondary pathology that can develop against the background of exposure to external or internal environmental factors. So, classifying dysbiosis for the reasons for its occurrence, the following types of pathology are distinguished:

  1. Drug. The development of dysbiosis is dictated by the use of antibiotics.
  2. Non-infectious. The basis of an unpleasant phenomenon may be functional disorders of the biliary apparatus, gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Pathologies of enzyme synthesis can lead to dysbiosis. Sometimes the source is an allergy to the intestinal mucosa.
  3. Infectious. A variety of microorganisms lead to the development of dysbiosis. By the type of pathogen, these types are distinguished:
      fungal - Candida fungi provoke dysbiosis, pathology is usually accompanied by thrush, staining of the tongue in a raspberry shade, the presence of jam
  4. Protein - is dictated by the growth of opportunistic microflora (proteus microorganisms), is characterized by a light course, usually does not go beyond the intestines,
  5. staphylococcal - has a severe course, characterized by a gradual spread to all body systems,
  6. associative is the most severe form of pathology, it is characterized by intestinal damage by staphylococcus in combination with other microbes.


Classification of dysbiosis is directly related to the causes of pathology

What is the danger of dysbiosis during pregnancy?

If the intestinal microflora is disturbed during pregnancy, this can adversely affect both the health of the expectant mother and the fetus. It is especially important to recover before childbirth.

In pregnant women, dysbiosis occurs both in the vagina and in the intestines, and is accompanied by chronic diarrhea, alternating with diarrhea. This leads to impaired motility, heaviness in the lower abdomen, discomfort. Violation of the stool can not only cause intoxication of the body. This can affect the change in uterine tone, and cause premature birth. The altered vaginal microflora, along with inflammatory processes, reduces the resistance of the birth canal to injuries, causing tears during childbirth.

If childbirth began in a woman who was not treated, then the newborn develops pathogenic dysbiosis. A child swallows pathogenic bacteria while passing through the birth canal. In the future, dysbiosis in infants causes many problems both to the baby itself and to its parents.

You can read more about how to treat dysbiosis in infants here.

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Watch the video: Inflammation, dysbiosis and chronic disease (March 2020).