Many sexually transmitted diseases develop for a long time without symptoms, but sooner or later cause complications. Ureaplasma in men is diagnosed much less frequently than in women. More people who have an active sex life with many partners are affected, but absolutely anyone can develop an infection. It's all about the immune system. It is sometimes possible to notice changes in well-being only after 3-6 months, so you need to know what ureaplasma is and for what symptoms you should consult a doctor.
Ureaplasma in men
Before you start treatment, you should find out what ureaplasma is. So called small bacteria that live on the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system. The human body is a favorable environment for the multiplication of the causative agent of the disease. Ureaplasma SPP is considered conditionally pathogenic bacteria. If immunity is reduced, then microorganisms multiply, which leads to the development of pathology.
To date, three biovars have been identified, but only two are dangerous to humans: ureaplasma parvum and ureaplasma urealyticum. It is impossible to distinguish them independently, since the signs are identical. The first type is classified as conditionally pathogenic bacteria, which, with high immunity, do not manifest themselves.
Many are interested in ureaplasma - is it a sexually transmitted disease or not? The disease is attributed to sexually transmitted infections. Both a man and a woman can be infected, regardless of age. “Is it transmitted through oral sex?” Is another popular question that can be answered in the affirmative.
Ways of infection in men
In 95% of cases, men become infected during sexual contact with the carrier of infection. The causative agent is transmitted from an infected woman through a vaginal secretion, which contains a high level of bacteria. If with a single unprotected sex, the risk is about 60%, then with repeated, it increases to 90%. Most often, once is enough, especially if the protective function is weakened. It should be remembered how ureaplasma is transmitted: through vaginal as well as oral sex.
It is extremely rare that a disease is transmitted by contact-household means, a similar thing happens with people who have low immunity due to serious illnesses. Bacteria outside the human body (for example, on washcloths, towels, underwear) live a little. However, sometimes it’s enough to visit a public bath to get sick. Symptoms are not immediately noticed - ureaplasma urealiticum in men for some time does not appear, but a person is a source of infection.
So, the main ways of infection are sexual and domestic. There is also intrauterine, that is, the infection is transmitted from mother to child. Among couples there are many who do not know if ureaplasma can be the cause of infertility. The disease negatively affects the process of conception, so before planning a pregnancy, it is necessary to cure it.
If infection did not occur during the first unprotected act with a carrier of bacteria, you should not rely on luck. Everything can be explained by strong immunity, which prevents bacteria from multiplying. Different reasons cause ureaplasma infection in men, but more often - sexual contact with the sick. Under the influence of the following provoking factors, the development of pathology begins:
- erosion and ulcers on the mucous membranes of the penis through which any infection penetrates,
- promiscuous sex
- early onset of intimate life
- lack of barrier contraception,
- gay sex
- recent surgery
- diseases of the genitourinary system,
- weakened immunity.
The protective reaction of the body can decrease after a serious illness, severe stress, an unbalanced diet. Provoking factors include prolonged use of antibiotics, antibacterial or hormonal drugs.
Symptoms of the disease
Ureaplasmosis in men rarely reaches a chronic form, although it is not so easy to notice the symptoms of the disease. Many, revealing changes, until the last delay the time of a visit to a doctor. The urealiticum species resembles the symptoms of mycoplasma and gardnerella, but different treatment is required. Signs of ureaplasma in men:
- groin discomfort,
- itching and burning during urination,
- soreness during intercourse,
- odorless discharge.
The incubation period of ureaplasma in men lasts from two weeks to 3 months. All this time, a person may not detect a single symptom of the disease. The best way out is to consult a doctor regularly and take tests.
Ureaplasma parvum is not accompanied by pronounced signs, it is diagnosed more often during a routine examination. The body is able to overcome the infection on its own without any consequences. The risk of re-infection, as well as the development of inflammation, is always there.
Which doctor should I contact
You need to visit a venereologist who will tell you how to treat ureaplasma in men. Young people get sick less often than women, but their illness often causes complications. Bacteria can be present in the body of absolutely healthy men - the rate of ureaplasma is 104 CFU per 1 milliliter. It is impossible to detect ureaplasma in the blood, urine surrenders. The diagnosis is made if, after a PCR test, the ureaplasma spp norm is exceeded.
Passing an analysis in the Invitro laboratory and undergoing treatment is necessary not only for the man, but also for the woman. If this is not done, then the young man risks re-contracting infection after the next sexual contact.
In addition to the polymerase chain reaction, bacteriological culture, enzyme immunoassay, PIF, spermogram can be prescribed. It is recommended two days before the diagnosis to abandon sexual contacts, and for a week - to exclude the use of any drugs. On the day of the examination, it is undesirable to smoke and take a shower so that the analysis shows a positive result.
The ureaplasma virus is resistant to most drugs, so taking them without a prescription is prohibited. Based on research, a specialist selects effective drugs: antibiotics, antibacterial and immunomodulating agents, as well as vitamins. The treatment regimen for ureaplasma depends on the state of health. For the duration of therapy, it is necessary to adhere to sexual rest.
Use of medicines
First of all, antibacterial drugs and antibiotics are prescribed to the patient. Jointly recommended intake of vitamin complexes to enhance immunity. How the disease is treated is indicated in the table, but the dosage depends on the type of ureplasm, the age of the patient, and other factors.
|A drug||Features of the tool||Allowed Usage Time|
|Tetracycline||Suitable for the treatment of acute and chronic ureaplasmosis||No more than 10 days|
|Doxycycline||It is prescribed for infections without complications||Up to 14 days|
|Rovamycin||It reaches the focus of the disease, suppresses bacteria, preventing them from multiplying||Up to 10 days|
|Sumamed||Antimicrobial||No more than 5-7 days|
|Clarithromycin||Used to treat ureaplasmosis and complications.||4 to 14 days|
As immunomodulating agents, it is recommended to use Wobenzym. He copes with his task perfectly - enhances immunity, and also prevents the inflammatory process. Of vitamins, doctors prescribe Complivit, Vitus, or Alphabet. In severe ureamycoplasmosis, intramuscular injections of timalin are necessary.
It is impossible to get rid of infection only with the help of unconventional methods. Sage, calendula, chamomile increase immunity, thereby helping to quickly deal with species ureaplasma. It is necessary to mix medicinal plants together, take 1 tbsp. l mixture and pour a glass of boiling water. After an hour, strain, take 200 ml every day. You can wash the genitals with a healing broth if severe itching is present.
Raspberry and lingonberry leaves have an antibacterial effect. Finely chopped fresh raw materials, 1 tbsp. l pour boiling water and insist for several hours. Use 2-3 times a day, taking 4-5 tbsp. l infusion before eating.
Diet during therapy
As a rule, when prescribing tablets for ureaplasma, a specialist recommends an additional diet. It is forbidden to eat fatty, spicy, salty and sweet foods. Replace these dishes with fresh vegetables, fruits, cereals, dietary meat. Steam or bake foods in the oven to preserve healthy items.
Sour-milk products with this disease will only benefit. Kefir, yogurt, sour cream - all this should be on the daily menu. They not only supplement the diet, but also positively affect the digestive tract, protecting against the consequences of the use of drugs.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis in men requires repeated tests to determine the DNA of bacteria and their level. For PCR, at least 3-4 weeks must elapse from the moment the medication is used up, ureaplasma in the smear can be detected or eliminated one week after therapy.
The consequences of not being treated
The causes and consequences of ureaplasma in men cannot be guessed, only in some cases the body is able to overcome the disease on its own. The disease can affect other organs:
- the urethra
- prostate gland.
What is the danger of infection:
- Urethritis. The inflammatory process of the urethra causes pain and pain during urination. A neglected disease rises, affecting the remaining organs of the genitourinary system.
- Epididymitis. Swelling, pain and enlarged testicles indicate severe inflammation. Appendages are also affected, and sometimes symptoms are not observed for a long time.
- Prostatitis. Erectile dysfunction and frequent urination are the main symptoms of advanced prostatitis.
- Cystitis. Inflammation in the bladder leads to severe pain, as well as urinary incontinence.
Balanitis, balanoposthitis, pyelonephritis, thrush, narrowing of the urethra - all this awaits a man who is in no hurry to treat genital infections. Ureaplasma and infertility are sometimes diagnosed together, and even with IVF, the likelihood of becoming pregnant is low.
More often, ureaplasma is transmitted from woman to man, but infection of the wife from the husband is not excluded. For the fair sex, the disease is much more dangerous, as it is transmitted to the child.
The main route of transmission is unprotected sex. It is necessary to exclude casual connections or always use condoms. The presence of a permanent partner reduces the likelihood of infection to almost zero. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to regularly undergo examinations by a urologist or venereologist.
Infectious diseases of the genitourinary system require mandatory treatment. Despite the prolonged absence of symptoms, ureaplasmosis has an impressive list of complications. Ureaplasma in men has various symptoms and treatment, which differ depending on the form, therefore, diagnosis is required.
The effect of ureaplasma on the infected body
Ureaplasma refers to a conditionally pathogenic flora. This means that it is found in healthy people. It can be present in the microflora of a person for a long time and at the same time not cause any discomfort. The appearance in the body of ureaplasma does not always cause inflammation, that is, the disease as such. Active reproduction of ureaplasma is prevented by normal microflora. However, if the balance is disturbed due to a decrease in immunity, for example, with cystitis, prostatitis, colpitis and other inflammatory diseases of the urogenital sphere of men and women, ureaplasma is activated and pathogenic processes begin to occur. Therefore, officially in medical documents at the moment there is no such infectious disease as “ureaplasmosis”, however, inflammatory diseases may be called with an indication of their localization and clarification that they are caused by a specific type of ureaplasma. According to the latest (2006) classification of sexually transmitted infections according to the World Health Organization, Ureaplasma urealyticum is among the causative agents of sexual infections. We will arbitrarily call all pathogenic processes occurring as a result of the activity of ureaplasma, in the aggregate - ureaplasmosis.
Types of ureaplasma bacteria
The genus Ureaplasma is divided into 7 species. Of these 7 species, only 2 cause ureaplasmosis. It is for the presence of these two species that laboratory tests are usually taken:
- Ureaplasma urealiticum (Ureaplasma urealyticum),
- Ureaplasma parvum (Ureaplasma parvum).
When microorganisms of both species are found in a smear, they are conditionally referred to as Ureaplasma specials (Ureaplasma spp).
Determining the type of microbes is primarily necessary for the appointment of effective therapy. As for the symptoms of infection, it is not much different, and there is still debate about the specific pathogenicity of both microbes. But in general, researchers are inclined to believe that there is no particular difference in the approach to the treatment of diseases caused by these two microorganisms. And the treatment regimen in all cases of ureaplasmosis will be the same (antibiotics + local treatment + immunostimulating therapy).
Causes of ureaplasmosis in men
In the vast majority of cases, ureplasma infection enters the body through sexual contact. It is also possible intrauterine transmission of infection from a sick mother to a child or infection during childbirth. A number of experiments have proven that it is possible to move the virus in a domestic way. So, it is able to maintain viability on a damp surface for 2 days. Ureaplasma was found in samples taken from the seats of public toilets. However, the possibility of such a method of infection has not been proven.
If the pathogen enters the body, this does not mean that you will get sick. Therefore, the causes of ureaplasmosis can also be called:
- general decrease in immunity,
- the presence of other diseases of the genitourinary system,
- poor hygiene
- long-term use of antibiotics and hormones,
- general exhaustion, stress, etc.
For the same reason, an infection can be infected not only from a sick person, but also from someone who is a carrier, but he himself does not have any symptoms of the disease.
The main symptoms of ureaplasmosis in men
It is important to remember that ureaplasmosis in men often proceeds secretly, without causing clear symptoms. The incubation period, that is, the period between infection and the onset of the first symptoms, is about a month. All this time, ureaplasmosis does not manifest itself, but a person can already infect a sexual partner. After incubation time, ureaplasma in men causes symptoms such as pain, itching, burning in the urethra, which is especially disturbing during urination. Unclear mucous discharge from the canal is also observed in the morning.
Penetration of ureaplasma into the cells of the epithelium can make itself felt with angina if the infection occurred orally. The problem is that the severity of symptoms may be weak, it depends on the general condition of the body. In addition, after a few days, the symptoms completely disappear. And if at this time the patient did not consult a doctor and did not start treatment, the disease progresses. The microorganism through the mucous membrane of the urethra moves into the seminal vesicles, testicles, and into the prostate gland. The virus does not betray itself until the moment of immunity decline. Then the signs of inflammation will reappear.
Possible complications of ureaplasmosis
The inflammatory process in the genitourinary system, provoked by ureaplasma, especially arising repeatedly against the background of any decrease in immunity, as a consequence of hypothermia or stress, or any other disease, can lead to serious complications:
- Urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). The most common complication in men. Its manifestations are the same as with the initial manifestation of infection. In the acute course of the disease, the symptoms are absolutely similar to the symptoms of gonorrhea: the external opening of the urethra swells and becomes inflamed, purulent discharge is noticeable. The urine may be cloudy only in the morning at the first urination or constantly, depending on what part of the channel the inflammatory process has captured.
- Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). With prostatitis, there is pain in the perineum, discomfort, frequent urination, which is very difficult and causes pain. The consequences of prostatitis are impaired erection and infertility.
- Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis) occurs much less frequently than urethritis and prostatitis. It has a single subjective symptom: compaction, swelling in the scrotum. It usually proceeds painlessly.
Ureaplasma can parasitize on spermatozoa by attaching to their cell membrane. This significantly reduces their mobility. In addition, ureaplasma in the process of life produces enzymes that violate spermatogenesis. All this together becomes the cause of infertility in men.
The infection is also capable of affecting other organs, leading to pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, and rheumatic diseases.
Diagnosis of ureaplasmosis
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is based on the detection of antibodies to ureaplasma proteins in the blood. This method allows you to determine the type of ureaplasma (urealyticum or parvum), as well as the titer, that is, the number of microorganisms. Currently, it is considered not a very accurate method and difficult to interpret, since stable immunity to ureaplasma is not developed, in addition, it is far from always that patients infected with ureaplasma have an inflammatory process.
- Direct and indirect immunofluorescence (RNIF and RPIF). The most affordable diagnostic method, but, unfortunately, also approximate (accuracy of 50 - 70%).
- Bacteriological seeding (culture method). A longer and more expensive method. But it allows you to determine the sensitivity of bacteria to drugs and prescribe the most appropriate therapy. It is based on sowing flora on an artificial nutrient medium, growing microbes and exposure to them with antibacterial drugs.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) The most accurate and effective diagnostic method. Detects even one single bacterium long before the clinical picture of the disease. The downside is its high cost.
Which doctor treats ureaplasmosis in men
When the first symptoms appear, which may indicate ureaplasmosis, you need to contact a urologist. A urologist will conduct an initial examination, collect an anamnesis, prescribe the necessary tests. If ureaplasma is detected, prescribe treatment. If the case is quite ordinary and there are no other concomitant infections, then the urologist will cope with the diagnosis and treatment. If the case turns out to be more neglected or complicated, the urologist will refer the patient to a venereologist who directly specializes in sexually transmitted diseases. You can also immediately contact a venereologist. Especially if the presence of ureaplasmosis is already confirmed.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis in men
Treatment of ureaplasma in men is carried out in the same way as treatment in women. However, the specifics of treatment may be due to concomitant diseases and the specific localization of the inflammatory process. Treatment of ureaplasma in men includes drugs such as antibiotics, immunostimulants and local drugs, the use of which should be drawn up by a doctor.
The following drugs are used to treat ureaplasma in men:
- The basis of treatment is antibiotics of the tetracycline group, macrolides or fluoroquinolones. The most common choice for the primary disease is Doxycycline (Unidox solutab) or Azithromycin (Sumamed). Doxycycline is prescribed in a dosage of 100 mg 2 times a day. Duration of admission is 7-14 days. Start with taking the drug in a double dose (200 mg), then continue treatment according to the usual scheme.
- Azithromycin has more regimens. 500 mg on the first day and 250 mg for another 4 days. Or 250 mg for 7 days.
The appointment of other antibiotics is possible, since the resistance of strains to certain groups of drugs varies and, unfortunately, tends to grow. Judging by the reviews of some doctors in medical forums, many of them are already inclined to consider Doxycycline ineffective and prescribe only antibiotics of the macrolide or quinolone groups (with mixed infection). A widespread treatment for STDs with a single dose of Azithromycin (Sumamed) in a dosage of 1 g is ineffective against ureaplasma. A longer reception schedule is required.
Recently, doctors attach immunomodulating drugs to the treatment of ureaplasmosis. Since without restoration of the good state of the immune system, no antibacterial drugs can completely cure a ureaplasma infection, and even more so, prevent its recurrence. Such drugs as Immunal, Amiksin, Likopid, Methyluracil, Pantocrim can be prescribed. Another thing is that the very effect of pharmacological preparations on the state of the immune system still causes controversy in the scientific community. Some doctors prescribe immunomodulating drugs, others prefer to get along with multivitamin preparations and recommendations on non-drug methods of increasing immunity, which come down to a healthy lifestyle.
Local drugs, such as suppositories, are most often used as supplements, for example, to prevent the development of a fungal infection, which often accompanies ureaplasmosis, and, in addition, can develop with antibiotics. Quite often, both men and women are prescribed suppositories with immunomodulating and immunostimulating effects (Genferon, Viferon). Wound healing agents are also used for local treatment in case of severe edema and damage to the skin.
To alleviate the manifestations of inflammation, folk remedies are also suitable: baths or compresses with decoctions of herbs that have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects, such as chamomile, succession, plantain. Such procedures will alleviate the condition associated with itching and edema, in parallel with antibiotic treatment or before prescribing therapy by the attending physician, while waiting for the results of the tests.
After undergoing antibiotic treatment, it is necessary to restore the intestinal microflora with a course of taking probiotics or prebiotics (Linex, Bifiform, Hilak forte, etc.), since healthy microflora is an important condition for the well-being of the immune system. And also support the body by taking multivitamin preparations.
During the treatment period, it is necessary to exclude sexual activity, in extreme cases, it is imperative to use condoms, even with a regular partner who is also undergoing treatment. During the treatment period, you need to follow a diet: it is important to exclude spicy, fatty foods, sweets, alcohol. Prefer boiled and stewed dishes to fried. Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits. The diet is aimed both at reducing unpleasant symptoms, and at maintaining the body engaged in the fight against infection.
Monitoring the effectiveness of treatment of ureaplasmosis
After antibiotics are drunk, you must again come to the doctor's office and pass control tests to make sure that the prescribed treatment was effective. If the tests show the infection again, the doctor will prescribe another antibiotic. Most often, such cases occur for three reasons:
- resistance of the strain to the prescribed antibiotic,
- errors in treatment,
- re-infection from a sexual partner.
What is ureaplasma
Ureaplasma, a representative of the Mycoplasmataceae subfamily, is a microorganism that can live in a healthy body, since it is considered conditionally pathogenic, but with weakened immunity, the signs of the disease can quickly manifest. Bacteria carry more than half the women in the world. In them, the course of the disease, as a rule, passes without visible symptoms, this condition is called ureaplasmopositivity (Ureaplasma-positive). In the case of men, such a course of the disease also takes place, but usually infection with a ureaplasma infection in men proceeds with vivid symptoms. In this case, treatment is required. And also treatment is necessary if the man is an asymptomatic carrier, and his sexual partner has pronounced pathological changes in preparation for pregnancy in a woman, if one of the sexual partners is ureaplasmopositive. Detection of the presence of ureaplasma is carried out in the laboratory.
Ureaplasma differs from other bacteria in its structural feature - it does not have a cell wall. This explains why not all antibiotics are used to treat ureaplasma infection. The effect of many antibiotics is achieved in most cases due to the effect on the enzymes involved in the construction of the cell wall.
The effect of ureaplasma on the infected body
The effect of the ureaplasma bacterium on the body proceeds as follows:
· Getting inside the human body, it destroys the cell membranes, producing hydrogen peroxide,
· Then ureaplasmas are attached to the cell membrane,
If the disease is in the active phase, the cell that the bacterium acts on dies after 6 days.
Ureaplasmic bacteria inside the body secrete protease A, an enzyme that breaks down class A antibodies, which are responsible for a timely immune response. Therefore, immunity
to ureaplasma is not produced and you can become infected with ureaplasma infection several times in a lifetime.
Diagnosis of urealpasmosis in men
To identify a disease caused by ureaplasmas, the doctor has the right to prescribe one or more procedures from the list below:
· ELISA - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,
· Sowing for the detection of ureaplasma bacteria,
· PIF - direct immunofluorescence,
· PCR - polymerase chain reaction,
Sowing for sensitivity to antibiotics
· Microbiological examination of the ejaculate.
Depending on the manifestation of the symptoms, the doctor may prescribe additional tests in related areas in order to identify unwanted pathologies.
Key principles for the treatment of ureaplasmosis in men. Dosage of drugs
During treatment, the doctor may prescribe for the following groups of medicines:
Antibiotics (specific treatment of ureaplasma infection),
Antiprotozoal and antifungal drugs (prevention of complications),
Physiotherapy (in the presence of other diseases like prostatitis),
Vitamins (for general strengthening of the body)
· Immunomodulators (normalization of immunity),
· The introduction of local funds into the urethra.
Antibiotic treatment of ureaplasmosis
Antibiotics are selected by the doctor, taking into account the individual characteristics of the body, as well as the sensitivity of ureaplasmas to them. Antibacterial drugs that affect ureaplasma include:
1. group of tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline),
2. a group of macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, erythromycin, midecamycin, roxithromycin, spiramycin),
3. a group of lincosamides (dalacin or clindamycin),
4. a group of fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin, pefloxacin, moxifloxacin).
Doxycycline (vibramycin, medomycin, unidox solutab)
100 mg is prescribed 2 times a day, in a course of 1-2 weeks. In the first dose, the dose is increased in two, that is, 200 mg. One of the first drugs of choice for the treatment of ureaplasmosis.
Apply 500 mg 4 times a day, course 1-2 weeks.
Clarithromycin (clubax, clacid)
It is used at 250 mg 2 times a day, and in a prolonged form, at 500 mg 1 time per day, in a course of 1-2 weeks. The second drug of choice for the treatment of ureaplasma infection.
Apply 250 mg once a day for 1 week or 1 g on the first day and 500 mg for the next four days.
Assign 400 mg 3 times a day, a course of 1-2 weeks.
Erythromycin (erythromycin, erifluid)
Assign 500 mg 4 times a day, a course of 10-14 days.
Roxithromycin (Roxide, Roxithromycin, Rulide)
Apply 150 mg 2 times a day, course 2 weeks.
Assign 500 mg 3 times a day, a course of 1-2 weeks.
Spiramycin (rovamycidin, spiramisar, spiramycin-vero)
Apply 1 tablet of 3 million IU three times a day for a week and a half. One of the safest antibiotics, it can be prescribed during pregnancy.
Ofloxacin (zanocin, oflo, taricin)
Apply 400 mg 2 times a day, course 7-10 days. Effective for combined (mixed) gonococcus infection.
Prescribe 600 mg once a day, in a course of 7-10 days
Apply 400 mg once a day, in a course of 10 days.
Is partner treatment required
The detection of ureaplasmosis in all sexual partners of the infected is mandatory. This is done to avoid re-infection and complications. If a man has microorganisms, but there are no symptoms, you should definitely recover if the woman has a desire to become pregnant and even more so if she is already pregnant, because a ureaplasma infection can harm the fetus.
It is undesirable to have sex during the treatment period. Even the use of contraceptives (condom) does not give a one hundred percent guarantee in protection against ureaplasmosis.
Relapse or reinfection in men
If previously the patient has already undergone treatment for ureaplasmosis and did not complete the full course of therapy, and after a while he again discovered the symptoms of this disease, then you should not self-medicate and take the previously prescribed drugs, since they have already lost their effectiveness, since they are more likely to all developed the resistance of microorganisms. You should immediately seek help from a specialist so that he identifies the cause of the relapse, makes the correct diagnosis and carries out the appropriate treatment.
Features of ureaplasma
There are 3 types of pathogen. For a person, only ureaplasma parvum (parvum) and ureaplasma urealitikum, which combine the ureaplasma microorganisms as a specialist, are considered dangerous. Their clinical manifestations are similar. The habitat of microorganisms is the mucous membranes of the organs of the genitourinary system, where the most comfortable conditions exist for them. Often, the infection can be accompanied by other diseases that can be transmitted sexually (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, etc.).
General information about the disease
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The causative agents of ureaplasma infection are two microorganisms:
- Ureaplasma urealyticum (ureaplasma urealitikum),
- Ureaplasma parvum (ureaplasma parvum).
The role of other types of ureaplasma is much less, and has no clinical significance.
Ureaplasma is considered the causative agent of urethritis.
Ureaplasma belongs to the mycoplasma family and occupies an intermediate position between bacteria and viruses. Tropic to the epithelium of the urethra. According to the WHO, ureaplasma can be considered a potential causative agent of non-gonococcal urethritis - inflammation of the urethra.At the same time, experts from the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) in the USA do not consider ureaplasma dangerous and claim that its role in the development of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary tract has not been proven.
Douching with soda
Douching a woman with a pathology of this type should be done to reduce the level of the inflammatory process. The gynecologist on the prescription list includes soda therapy. The preparation of the solution requires certain actions. The main task is the complete dissolution of the substance.
Douching with soda requires systematic manipulation. The general course is 10 days. When preparing the solution, you need 1 tsp. soda add 1 drop of tea tree and the same patchouli. Mix everything well and add half a glass of warm water (be sure to boil the liquid in advance). This procedure is also suitable for candidiasis.
What diseases can ureaplasma provoke?
It is very important to realize that the ureaplasma diagnosis is dangerous not only in itself when the activity of microbes is activated. If a chronic ureaplasma process with periods of remissions and exacerbations occurs in the human body, this can lead to the formation of such pathologies:
- Prostatitis and urethritis,
- Pyelonephritis and cystitis,
- Endometritis and colpitis (in women),
- Urolithiasis disease,
- Infertility, both male and female,
- Miscarriage (in pregnant women),
- Adnexitis (inflammation of the ovaries in women),
- Meningitis or pneumonia (in a newborn born from a mother with a ureaplasmosis patient). In this case, infection can also occur when the baby passes through the birth canal.
If ureaplasma is left unattended in men, it can penetrate other organs. Most often, the bladder, appendages, urethra and prostate gland are affected. In addition, other complications of ureaplasmosis are possible:
- Urethritis is an inflammatory lesion of the urethra. The disease manifests itself as burning and discomfort at the time of urination. In the absence of treatment, the pathogen rises higher and affects other organs.
- Epididymitis is an inflammatory process in the epididymis. The main signs of the disease are enlarged and densified testicles.
- Destruction of sperm or a decrease in their motor activity. Ureaplasma is capable of secreting an enzyme that negatively affects sperm fluidity and reduces the possibility of fertilization.
- Disorders of the musculoskeletal system - arthritis, etc.
- Inflammation of the prostate - prostatitis. The disease is characterized by frequent urge to urinate, which is accompanied by pain. In advanced cases, an erection is disturbed.
All you need to know about the main symptoms of prostatitis. Disease is better to prevent than to cure!
- Cystitis is associated with inflammation in the bladder. Disease can lead to urinary incontinence.
- Balanitis and balanoposthitis.
- The narrowing of the urethra.
The danger of ureaplasma is that, without proper treatment, it can cause these and other complications.
Chronic ureaplasmosis in men
The chronic form develops against the background of a lack of timely or proper treatment.
The clinical manifestations of the chronic course of the disease can be as follows:
- frequent urination, especially at night with unpleasant discomfort
- mucous, clear discharge that the patient observes regularly
- impaired potency, sexual dysfunction, manifested in the absence of an erection or ejaculation
The chronic infectious process requires special attention from the patient to their own health.
It is necessary to regularly undergo venereological examinations and take tests.
In addition, you need to adhere to preventive measures, accidentally avoid proximity and sex without mechanical contraception.
DNA ureaplasma species found: what does it mean?
A response from the laboratory, indicating that ureaplasma is detected, should alert the patient. A blank with the word "discovered" means that a person has DNA fragments of pathogens.
Only a doctor can determine the stage and severity of the disease, prescribe appropriate therapy.
Clinical manifestations that should serve as a reason for passing tests:
Treatment methods for ureaplasmosis in men
Men diagnosed with Ureaplasma urealyticum should immediately start taking antibiotics.
Your doctor may recommend the following medications.
- Azithromycin (Summamed)
Azithromycin is an antibiotic derived from erythromycin, which belongs to a new generation of azide antimicrobials and macrolides.
Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics, that is, those that inhibit the development of cells, but do not kill them.
This allows you to stop the propagation of pathogenic flora, bacterial cells weaken and are not able to affect healthy ones.
Antibiotics of this group are characterized by a wide spectrum of action and affect many bacterial strains.
Among them are Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus ducreyi, Salmonella typhi.
It is especially good for azithromycin for infections of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Chlamydia.
The treatment regimen for ureaplasmosis in men is determined individually.
The dosage of the drug is prescribed taking into account the symptoms and diagnostic results: 250 mg once a day for 3 days or once 500 mg on the first day.
Then 250 mg once a day for 2 days, a single dose of 0.25-0.5 g.
- Doxycycline (Unidox Solutab)
The active substance is doxycycline.
This is a long-acting semi-synthetic antibiotic from the tetracycline group.
The mechanism of its action, common to the entire group of tetracycline antibiotics, is to suppress the synthesis of bacterial proteins.
This occurs by blocking the bacterial ribosomes and cell structures necessary for protein synthesis, which prevents the growth and reproduction of bacterial cells.
Doxycycline, like other antibiotics from the tetracycline group, is classified as a bacteriostatic substance with a wide spectrum of action.
Doxycycline is mainly administered orally, in some cases intravenously.
Doxycycline preparations for the treatment of ureaplasmosis in men are prescribed by a doctor according to an individual scheme.
On the first day, 100 mg in a single dose or in 2 divided doses (100 mg every 12 hours), followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg per day, 100 mg per day for 7-10 days.
For the treatment of urogenital infections caused by ureaplasma urealyticum, your doctor may recommend using 0.25-0.5 g per day in divided doses.
In severe infections, it is recommended to increase the dose to 0.5 g per day.
- Macropen (midecamycin)
This drug has a wide spectrum of action and effectively destroys gram-positive bacteria, including such as chlamydia, mycoplasmas, spirochetes, salmonella, etc.
Once in the human body, Macropen has an immobilizing effect on bacteria.
It disrupts the formation of proteins in their cells and gradually eliminates the signs of pathogenic microflora.
All macrolides are more toxic than penicillins, but the safest in terms of the likelihood of allergies.
The drug should be taken before meals: for adults, Macropen is prescribed 400 mg (1 tablet) 2 times a day.
The maximum daily dose for adults is 0.8 g.
Important! Urinary tract infections can be caused by pathogens of various nature - viruses, fungi, bacteria, protozoa.
Therefore, it makes sense to start treatment only after a thorough laboratory diagnosis and determination of the type of pathogen.
Treatment of infection is not limited to taking antibiotics, for effective therapy it is important to use an integrated approach.
Otherwise, the disease may "return."
Therefore, simultaneously with antibiotic therapy, it is prescribed:
- Immunomodulators. Improve the immune status of the body, increase its resistance against infections. As drugs that support the immune system, Immunal, Immunomax, Cycloferon can be prescribed. Especially, the drugs are indicated in the treatment of late chronic processes.
- Multivitamins. Especially shown are those that contain a high concentration of vitamin C.
- Adaptogens. They are a group of plants, or rather a group of active substances contained in some plants. They are responsible for adaptogenic properties, that is, they increase resistance to stress and maintain the proper balance of the body. Known adaptogens: tincture of ginseng and eleutherococcus.
- Lacto- and bifidobacteria (Linex, Bifidumbacterin.) It is prescribed after taking antibiotics to restore microflora and with dysbiosis.
- Hepatoprotectors. This is the collective name for drugs that have a different mechanism of action, but are aimed at protecting liver cells during aggressive drug exposure. For the treatment of ureaplasmosis, agents based on milk thistle or ademethionine - Heptral, Karsil may be recommended.
You can get infected with ureaplasma in several ways. The main and most common is sexual contact. It is worth noting that infection can occur during oral sex.
There are other methods of infection:
In addition to these methods of transmission of this disease, close household contact is noted. Infection in such cases is probably infrequent, but it does occur.
There are many factors that contribute to the spread of infection:
Additional agents used in the treatment of Ureaplasma spp
Doctors do not recommend that all therapy be based solely on the use of antibacterial agents.
After all, if a person drinks only antibiotics, it is likely that therapy will give only a temporary effect.
In addition to antibiotics, it is recommended to pay attention to drugs that can improve the state of the immune system.
It can be immunomodulators, such as Viferon.
These drugs activate the immune system, allow it to actively fight the infection.
However, it is important to remember that with HIV and other pathologies of the immune system, the use of immunomodulators is not practical.
In addition, so that the body quickly defeats the infection, doctors recommend supplementing the therapy with instillations in the urethra in men.
In women, by washing the genitals with antiseptic drugs.
Physiotherapy may also be used.
Features of Ureaplasma spp in women
Representatives of the weaker sex, unlike men, often develop a vivid clinical picture of the disease.
It manifests itself primarily by such phenomena as inflammation of the appendages, ovaries, uterus, vagina and other parts of the genitourinary system.
Urethritis, unlike the stronger sex, is quite rare in women.
The nature of the discharge in women may differ from that characteristic of men.
A pathogenic microorganism can cause yellowish or greenish discharge, which has an unpleasant odor.
True, they are plentiful rather rarely, as doctors say.
In addition to secretions, there may be complaints of itching, irritation of the mucous membranes and skin in the problem area.
Often there are pains in the lower abdomen.
This suggests that the infection has moved higher along the urogenital tract to the uterus or bladder.
A characteristic feature of ureaplasmosis in women is also the pain of menstruation.
Particular caution should be shown to those representatives of the fair sex that had not previously suffered from pain during menstruation.
What is ureaplasmosis?
Mycoplasmataceae - the so-called pathogenic bacteria, which are a specific causative agent of the disease mycoplasmosis, or, as it is called more often, ureaplasmosis. These bacteria - at present they were counted by 14 species - are not real bacteria. They can even be classified as viruses, since they do not have a full-fledged cell membrane.
But at the same time, they have a core, which brings them closer to unicellular creatures. It is because of the similar structure of the pathogen that ureaplasma infection is difficult to treat. Bacteria penetrate the cell, multiply there, are not amenable to the action of modern antibacterial agents.
In a healthy person, these bacteria are present in the natural flora and are activated during infection with other diseases, with hypothermia, in stressful situations, with a decrease in immunity.
Infection is diagnosed when the concentration of pathogenic flora exceeds the borderline value: 10x4 CFU / ml. CFU - colony forming units.
Carriers of ureaplasmosis
One of the most common bacteria, ureaplasma can not be detected for years and live peacefully in the body, perfectly accustomed to microflora. It is for this reason that parasites are conditionally pathogenic. Danger is only threatened by the creation of conditions - a drop in immunity, stress, and others. And up to this point, a woman is a carrier of infection.
Important: some doctors, upon detection of a microorganism, immediately prescribe therapy, which is not necessary. Their presence does not mean the active phase of the disease.
According to statistics, up to 80% of the population can be a carrier of parasitic ureaplasmosis and not be aware of it. Therefore, you need to understand that there is a high risk of infection or transmission to a sexual partner.
Features of antibiotic therapy Ureaplasma spp
Patients are often interested in the question of which antibiotic will help them cope with the disease.
If his symptoms did develop, they began to cause tangible concern.
The question is quite reasonable, since bacterial infections must be treated with antibacterial agents.
The list of names and dosages of antibiotics, as doctors note, is quite extensive.
Macrolides, tetracyclines, drugs of the linkosamide series can be used in clinical practice.
Most often used:
- Doxycycline, which is drunk in a course of 3-5 days at 100 mg per day
- Josamycin, which is recommended to be used at the same time, but 500 mg twice a day
- Azithromycin, which can be drunk for only 3 days, and on the first day, a loading dose of 500 mg is drunk, and on the remaining days, smaller doses of 250 mg, etc.
If we are talking about a pregnant woman, then only Josamycin is allowed for her treatment.
Using other antibiotics is dangerous for the developing fetus, since the side effects of these drugs are quite serious.
Typical symptoms of Ureaplasma spp infection
Patients who have experienced the full development of the disease, depending on gender, develop symptoms of urethritis, balanitis, vulvovaginitis, lesions of the uterus and cervix.
All these pathologies have fairly typical symptoms.
There are complaints about:
- burning sensation, pain when trying to visit the toilet to relieve the bladder
- discomfort during sexual intercourse
- soreness in the lower abdomen, which is especially characteristic of the fair sex
- various pathological changes in the menstrual cycle, which also occur in women and others.
If symptoms develop, they are usually acute; it is difficult to ignore them.
However, doctors note that in clinical practice there is also an atypical form of the infectious process.
It manifests itself with mild symptoms, which the patient may not even pay attention to.
Which doctor will diagnose and treat Ureaplasma spp
Often, patients are interested in the question of which doctor will decide on the necessary tests, and which remedies to use.
The question is very logical.
Since attributing ureaplasmosis in the full sense of the word to STDs, given its conditional pathogenicity, is still impossible.
First of all, as soon as the disturbing symptoms of the pathology appear, it is worth visiting the venereologist.
These doctors are involved in STDs, including ureaplasmosis.
A venereologist will be able to prescribe studies that will help to make the correct diagnosis.
It will determine if there are any concomitant infections, and then it will give recommendations on how best to get rid of the pathology.
The question of which institutions to contact is also often acute.
If the patient is not satisfied with the state police department or his own clinic, he has the right to visit, for example, a private diagnostic and treatment center.
They will have to take tests there for a fee, but the level of anonymity, which is important for a number of patients, is higher.
It is worth remembering that if there is no opportunity to contact a venereologist, it is worth visiting, for example, a gynecologist if the woman has symptoms.
Or a urologist, if the signs appeared in a man.
These doctors are also familiar with the manifestations of ureaplasmosis and can give recommendations on how best to treat the pathology.
Is partner treatment required
If you are undergoing treatment, then it is imperative to carry it out to both (or several) partners in order to avoid re-infection. Even if a man ureaplasma revealed does not manifest itself in any way, you need to undergo treatment if the partner is planning a pregnancy or is already pregnant. Ureaplasma infection can interfere with conception, as well as cause miscarriage, termination of pregnancy. In addition, intrauterine infection of the fetus or infection during childbirth is possible.
Ureaplasmosis in men is caused by special pathogens from the group of mycoplasmas - ureaplasmas. They are separated into a separate group Ureaplasma spp because of their unique biochemical activity - the ability to decompose urea (from the Latin language urea is translated as urea). Microbiologists included the following types of microorganisms here:
- Ureaplasma urealyticum (ureaplasma urealitikum),
- Ureaplasma parvum (ureaplasma parvum).
Ureaplasma is a small microorganism that has a fairly simple structure. For fifty years of the last century, there has been a debate between scientists about what ureaplasma is - a bacterium or a virus. It has similarities with these two pathogens and is a round or oval cell without a cell wall. Inside the cell is genetic information in the form of ring DNA molecules and a small amount of RNA. In nature, there are more than 15 different serotypes of pathogenic ureaplasmas, slightly differing from each other in structure and properties.
A feature of ureaplasma is that it lives in almost all people in the urogenital tract, especially in the urethra
A feature of ureaplasma is that it lives in almost all people in the urogenital tract, especially in the urethra. On the mucous membranes, the growth and reproduction of the microorganism occurs, but this does not lead to disease. Many doctors believe that ureaplasma urealitikum and parvum in men are not causative agents of the disease, since their absolute pathogenicity and hostility towards humans has not been proven. In exceptional cases, enhanced colonization of the urogenital tract begins, then an infectious process occurs.
Sources of infection
Ureaplasmosis in men has three causes:
- sexual distribution
- contact household transmission through household items,
- transmission of the pathogen from mother to fetus.
Ureaplasma parvum and urealiticum in men in 95% of cases appear after unprotected intercourse. The source of infection is a patient with a urogenital form of ureaplasmosis. The transmission route is sexual. Pathogens are transmitted to a man from an infected woman through a vaginal secretion, in which there are a large number of them. The chance of infection with a single unprotected intercourse is more than 60%, with a second - about 90%. A partner with a weakened immune system and poor resistance to any infections is at greater risk. In such people, the development of acute urethritis with a vivid clinical picture is more often observed.
Ureaplasma parvum and urealiticum in men in 95% of cases appear after unprotected intercourse
Much less common is contact-household infection. Ureaplasma can survive for some time on various objects, things and surfaces, from where it then enters the human body. The greatest contamination is characteristic for personal hygiene products, towels, toilet facilities and bathtubs. Public baths and saunas are also dangerous. Many forget about visiting these places and do not understand where they get ureaplasma in the body. A long period can pass before the symptoms of the disease appear, and the infected person himself becomes a source of infection.
Infection with ureaplasmas is also possible in the womb through the placenta from the mother to the fetus (let the transmission be vertical or transplacental). When a child passes through the genital tract during childbirth, there are infections in two ways. The child, while in the vagina, aspirates the contents of the infected pathways, which provokes the development of bronchopneumonia, which requires long-term treatment. Contact may occur in girls with vulvovaginitis, in boys urethritis or balanoposthitis.
What is dangerous for men and what will happen if not treated
The danger is both an acute form of the disease, and prolonged latent carriage. The consequences of ureaplasmosis depend on general immunity and the timeliness of treatment. In acute conditions, improper treatment can lead to the development of purulent complications of the genitourinary tract. If not treated, the infection is actively spreading to the upper parts of the urogenital tract. Acute cystitis occurs, and then the kidneys are affected - pyelonephritis. Acute ureaplasma pyelonephritis often becomes chronic, which occurs with a pronounced impairment of renal function.
The close anatomical proximity between the pelvic organs contributes to the rapid spread of infections and the emergence of interrelated diseases. So, with urethritis, the occurrence of acute prostatitis is possible. Acute prostatitis can cause abscesses in the organ, then pus often breaks into the fatty tissue of the pelvis. This condition is very dangerous, the development of sepsis or infectious toxic shock is possible. Fortunately, such formidable complications are very rare (less than 1%).
Prolonged infection leads to chronic prostatitis with impaired erectile function and urinary disorders. With the spread of the process to the testicles and pendants, epididymorchitis occurs, as a result of male infertility. If a couple does not manage to conceive a child for a long time, then it is possible that the husband persists with ureaplasma in the genitourinary system.
In some cases, spontaneous self-healing after an acute infection is possible without any complications. But this should not mislead patients. Ureaplasmosis must be treated to avoid possible consequences. Seek immediate medical attention. He will conduct an examination and decide the better to treat the patient.
How to treat ureaplasmosis in men
How to treat urogenital ureplasmosis in men is determined by the doctor for each patient individually. Once the research results are ready, you need to visit the doctor again. Before prescribing treatment, you need to tell him about a drug allergy.
- etiotropic drug therapy,
- immunocorrective therapy,
- local treatment
- medical diet and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
Etiotropic drugs for the treatment of ureaplasma parvum and urealitikum are represented by various groups of antibiotics. They are prescribed to destroy pathogenic microflora or to reduce the growth rate of microorganisms. The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease, but usually is at least 7 days. Ureaplasmosis can be cured, but it is impossible to get rid of ureaplasma forever, since it is always present in the microflora of the urethra.
Ureaplasmosis in men includes local treatment. This includes antibacterial ointments and creams. They also have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, relieve itching and swelling of the tissues. Any infectious disease requires the appointment of immunomodulators to strengthen immunity and faster recovery. Medicine has long proved the absolute effectiveness of immunocorrective therapy in both men and women. The most effective treatment regimens always include at least one medicine from this group. Physiotherapeutic procedures complement drug treatment, they are prescribed for 10-14 days.
Thus, the complex treatment of ureaplasmosis in men includes drugs, the treatment regimen is complemented by non-drug measures. If an infection is detected in one of the sexual partners, the second partner is also subjected to pharmacotherapy.
Antibiotics for urogenital ureaplasmosis in men occupy a leading place in treatment. The treatment regimen is prescribed by the attending physician based on the results of the antibiotic sensitivity of the microorganism. If PCR or serodiagnostic methods were used, then a “standard” course of treatment is prescribed, including a combination of antibacterial drugs or one drug with a wide spectrum of action.
Most commonly used drugs:
- beta-lactam antibiotics of the penicillin group - Amoxicillin or Amoxiclav,
- macrolides - Azithromycin, Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Roxithromycin,
- tetracyclines - Doxycycline, less often tetracycline,
- cephalosporins - Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Ceftobiprol.
For treatment, the most commonly used group of macrolides and doxycycline. They have the least negative consequences, because the toxicity of drugs to the body is minimal. The course of antibiotic treatment depends on the drug and ranges from 7 to 14 days. For men with severe renal or hepatic insufficiency, the drugs are prescribed in the minimum dosage, and ointments and creams with antimicrobial drugs are included in the treatment. Sometimes treatment of ureaplasma in men is supplemented by antifungal drugs. This is necessary to prevent the development of candidiasis of the mucous membranes.
Immunomodulators and vitamins
Immunomodulating medications are prescribed to increase the body's resistance to infections. In addition, they stimulate the activity of immune cells, accelerating the process of elimination of pathogens from the body. Vitamin-mineral complexes are taken with a course of a total duration of at least a month for the prevention of vitamin deficiency and a faster recovery.
A group of drugs called tissue reparants is highly effective. They accelerate the regeneration of damaged tissues, improve trophism and blood flow. The most common drug in this group is methyluracil.
Traditional medicine can supplement the prescription of a doctor. Before starting self-treatment, you should consult your doctor. Widely used decoctions and tinctures of berries and leaves of lingonberry, birch buds, dill seeds. These medicinal plants have a pronounced uroseptic effect, which allows them to be used for any infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract.
Ureaplasmas - more about the microorganism
Ureaplasma is a bacterium that belongs to the category of opportunistic microorganisms. It has a kinship with mycoplasmas, but unlike the latter, it can break down urea to ammonia. Ureaplasmas from the genitourinary system are small and can penetrate 0.22 μm through the pores.
In addition to U. Urealyticum, which provoke inflammation of the genitourinary organs, there are U. Parvum, which usually live on mucous membranes of clinically healthy women. These are two biotypes, which are divided into serotypes:
- Parvum - 4 serotypes (1, 3, 6, 14),
- Urealyticum - 10 serotypes (remaining numbers).
At the moment, studies are being carried out regarding serotypes responsible for the occurrence of inflammation in women and men. In one person, different serotypes of ureaplasma may simultaneously be in the test results.
Urologist (adult), Urologist (pediatric)
Moscow, 2nd Botkinsky passage, 8
Ryazan, st. Pravolybedskaya, d. 40
Ultrasound Diagnostics, Urologist (Adult)
Moscow, Maroseyka St., 6-8, p. 4
Moscow, Prospect Marshal Zhukov, 38 k.1
Moscow, st. Gamalei, 18
Moscow, Prospect Marshal Zhukov, 38 k.1
Moscow, 2nd Botkinsky passage, 8
Moscow, st. Gamalei, 18
Moscow, st. Gamalei, 18
Urologist (adult), Urologist (pediatric), Examination
Moscow, Maroseyka St., 6-8, p. 4
Ultrasound Diagnostics, Urologist (Adult)
Ryazan, st. Pravolybedskaya, d. 40
Moscow, Warsaw highway, 32
Ultrasound Diagnostics, Urologist (Adult)
Moscow, Pskovskaya St., 9, building 1
Ultrasound Diagnostics, Urologist (Adult)
Moscow, Shipilovskaya St., 1
Symptoms of ureaplasmosis in men
The incubation period in men is about 30 days, however, the ingress of ureaplasma into the body does not guarantee the appearance of noticeable inflammation. Often the patient does not notice the manifestations and remains the spread of the infection. Symptoms are similar to the picture with urethritis, accompanied by relapses. The first symptomatology may be mild and pass quickly enough, but the bacteria do not disappear anywhere - they attach to the walls of the genitourinary organs and wait for the right moment (weakening of immunity).
Signs of ureaplasmosis, occurring in a latent form, are manifested with a decrease in the body's defenses - stress, bad habits, loss of immunity due to another infection, great physical exertion, taking hormonal drugs and antibiotics. The disease often develops in men with chronic prostatitis or is associated with gonorrhea, chlamydia and other STDs. The rapid and rapid development of infection after infection occurs, as a rule, with obviously reduced immunity - due to HIV, syphilis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc.
- non-gonococcal urethritis - observed in 30% of patients, sluggish, symptoms often disappear on their own,
- turbid and scarce discharge, especially after a long urination delay characteristic of night sleep,
- pain, pain when going to the toilet,
- redness and swelling around the urethra and on the head of the penis,
- orchoepidimitis - inflammation of the testicle or epididymis,
- asthenospermia - occurs as a result of parasitization of ureaplasmas on sperm,
- sluggish course, relapses - the symptoms disappear for a while, but can then reappear.
Asthenospermia is one of the provocateurs of male infertility. It occurs for three reasons. The first is that ureaplasma is in contact with the surface of the sperm, which causes lysis of the membrane and loss of mobility. The second - in the membrane of the sperm and ureaplasma there are common antigens for which antibodies are produced that damage the sperm. Third, ureaplasmas produce enzymes that affect sperm fluidity.
To make an appointment
Ureaplasma quickly adapts to drugs and acquires resistance.Self-selection of a treatment regimen, as well as discontinuation of treatment before the completion of the course, complicates the situation. When symptoms appear, as well as once every six months, even in their absence, in the presence of sex, it is necessary to undergo examinations. Based on the studies and the history / information on past treatments, the specialist will be able to choose the right antibiotics and supporting drugs based on experience, statistics and the latest information from the scientific community.
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What is urogenital ureaplasmosis
The disease is an inflammation of the genitourinary organs, and the ureaplasma is the causative agent of the pathogenic process. These pathogenic microorganisms are small in size and localized on the genital mucosa. Ureaplasma (like mycoplasma) can be found in the body in healthy men and women, and the development of pathology occurs only in case of weakened immunity or other negative factors.
Ureaplasma differs from other types of pathogenic bacteria in that it is able to stimulate the splitting of urea to ammonia, due to which the microorganism got its name (translated from Latin urea - urea). To date, two varieties of this bacterium are known - parvum and urealyticum. Both microorganisms can live on the mucous membrane of the genitals and serve as the cause of the inflammatory process. The clinical symptoms of diseases caused by ureaplasma parvum or urealitikum are absolutely identical, as is the course of the pathology.
Infection with urogenital infection occurs in three ways:
- due to sexual intercourse,
- after tissue / organ transplantation,
- in the vertical way (from mother to baby during childbirth).
The first signs of ureaplasma in men
At an early stage, symptoms of ureaplasma in men are extremely rare. The initial period of infection of the body is asymptomatic until the bacteria spread to a wider area or start pathological processes. Ureaplasma urealiticum in men and the second type of the disease - parvum - have the same clinical manifestations. Moreover, the incubation period for the development of pathogenic microorganisms in each man can be different (from 2-3 days to several weeks or even months).
The characteristic signs of ureaplasmosis in men are:
- transparent discharge from the urethra (this symptom is also characteristic of other diseases of the urogenital system of men, however, discharge with ureaplasma does not have an unpleasant smell),
- malfunctioning urination (bacteria complicate the process of emptying the bladder, in some cases, the desire to visit the toilet increases in men),
- burning, itching of the genital organs (symptoms accompanied by redness of the skin),
- local temperature increase (in the genital area, the temperature increases due to the inflammatory process),
- pain (as a rule, this symptom manifests itself when the bladder is empty and pain in the urethra is localized),
- a feeling of pressure in the area of the bladder (this symptom of ureaplasmosis increases with sudden movements of the body),
- general symptoms of ureaplasma in men include malaise in general, muscle weakness, and a slight increase in body temperature.
Stages of the development of the disease and their symptoms
Ureaplasma parvum in men (like urealiticum) does not always have pronounced symptoms, which depends on the stage of the pathology. There are two periods of the development of the disease:
- passive (latent or chronic),
- active (acute form).
The first is not characterized by specific specific symptoms: a man is not worried about anything. Often, representatives of the stronger sex do not even know about the presence of infection in their body. In a latent form of ureaplasmosis, bacteria are in a state of incubation, waiting for their immunity to weaken in order to manifest. Often, the parasite complicates the already existing inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system and upsets the balance of microorganisms.
The acute or active form of ureaplasmosis in men is more dangerous. At first, the disease proceeds imperceptibly and asymptomatically, however, the following signs of pathology appear within a few weeks:
- the patient has abundant, cloudy discharge,
- body temperature rises to 37 degrees,
- burning / itching / soreness is felt in the genital area,
- an erection is disturbed, there are other signs of prostatitis,
- frequent urination,
- the testicles become inflamed
- there is irritation of the genital mucosa,
- symptoms of urolithiasis and urethritis appear.
How is the diagnosis
Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum are more dangerous for men than for women, so self-medication is unacceptable. Only a doctor is able to accurately determine the diagnosis and prescribe adequate treatment. Severe symptoms of ureaplasma in men indicate a late stage of the disease, so you can not postpone a visit to a specialist. The doctor examines the patient, assessing the degree of pathology. During the survey, it turns out what could cause the development of inflammation.
If necessary, the doctor recommends that the patient undergo tests and undergo other diagnostic procedures. Based on the results, he draws up a course of therapy. Diagnosis methods include:
- PCR for ureaplasma (polymerase chain reaction),
- bacterial culture
- enzyme immunoassay
- microbiological analysis of seminal fluid.
In addition, the diagnosis may include methods for detecting other diseases that can provoke the development of ureaplasma. If symptoms of this pathology occur, it is necessary to examine not only the man, but also his sexual partner. This is due to the high risk of infection through sexual intercourse. When identifying symptoms of ureaplasma in men, you need to abandon sex for a while or use reliable contraceptives that protect against the transmission of genital infections (medications are useless in this case, only condoms are suitable).
How to take an analysis of ureaplasma in men
48 hours before the analysis, the man abstains from sexual intercourse. In the evening on the eve of the examination, it is worthwhile to conduct hygienic procedures, and on the day of the delivery of seminal fluid and bacterial inoculation, the genitals cannot be washed. An ureaplasma test is taken 2–3 hours after the patient’s last visit to the toilet. During the week before the examination, any medication is prohibited (if this is not possible, it is worthwhile to warn the doctor in advance).
To obtain material for microscopic examination, a man takes a scraping from the wall of the urethra. This procedure practically does not cause pain, but brings only discomfort. The doctor uses a cotton swab or a special probe during the collection of material, which is inserted 3 cm deep into the urethra. The procedure takes several seconds.
What is the disease dangerous: possible complications and consequences
In the absence of effective treatment, the following pathologies can become the consequences of ureaplasmosis in men:
- urolithiasis disease,
- non-gonococcal urethritis,
- deterioration in the quality of seminal fluid,
- psychical deviations,
- problems with potency.