Sunglasses - one of the fashion accessories of many people with whom they do not part in the summer and winter. They emphasize style and help create the desired image. The main task of these ophthalmic products is to protect the eyes from sunlight and ultraviolet rays. Learn from the article on how to choose good quality sunglasses.
In this article
The sun's rays in the eyes can seriously harm them. If glasses do not retain ultraviolet, it gradually accumulates in the body and leads to the formation of a large number of free radicals. They destroy protein compounds and ribonucleic acids. The pathological process leads to ophthalmic disorders and reduced vision. The consequence of the fact that sunglasses transmit ultraviolet, often become:
- dry eye syndrome: exposure to harmful radiation reduces the amount of tear fluid, which causes burning and itching,
- pterygium - damage to the cornea by altered conjunctival tissues, which occurs in the limbal ring and grows to the center of the cornea,
- photokeratitis - a form of corneal burn, accompanied by redness of the protein coat, tearing, a sensation of a foreign body in the eye,
- pingvekula - a pathology in which small yellow formations appear in the nasal region of the conjunctiva,
- cataract - clouding of the lens due to exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays,
- solar retinopathy, in which the process of destruction of sensorineural cells occurs in the central part of the retina.
The lens is the most affected by ultraviolet radiation - a natural filter of ultraviolet radiation. It almost completely absorbs light rays, the length of which is from 315 to 400 nm (nanometers). Because of this, the protein compounds of the lens are destroyed, the structure of the elements of the visual apparatus changes.
Children are more likely than adults to suffer from exposure to ultraviolet rays, since at a younger age, the organs of vision cope worse with external stresses on the eyes. The consequence of this is a decrease in the elasticity of the lens, which often leads to the development of hyperopia in children.
Who should wear sun glasses?
Use sunglasses should be without exception. There is a certain category of people to whom it is not advisable to pick up glasses from the sun, but it is necessary. Optometrists recommend wearing sunglasses to people who regularly take diuretics and tranquilizers. The components that make up these drugs increase eye sensitivity to light and reduce the blocking properties of the lens. For such people, these ophthalmic products are not a stylish accessory, but the necessary eye protection. This also applies to:
- residents of sunny regions,
- holders of bright colors of the iris,
- people who have had cataract surgery
- patients undergoing photodynamic treatment course,
- Athletes who spend a lot of time in the sun
- visitors to the solarium.
The rays of the sun are dangerous not only in summer but also in winter. Many people do not know about this, so they think that it is worth buying glasses only for the warm season. Doctors say that the winter sun is as dangerous as the summer one. Snow cover, ice surface, wet road surface reflect ultraviolet light, which means that even in the cold season you should choose sunglasses.
Cloudy weather is no reason to leave sun glasses at home. Clouds transmit mid-wave rays that are hazardous to the visual organs. Because of this, health often worsens, headaches occur, and watery eyes.
Why are low-quality sunglasses dangerous?
Budget models of sunglasses do not provide good protection from ultraviolet radiation. When darkened, the pupils dilate. If at this moment there is a cheap model of sunglasses in front of our eyes, this will lead to the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays. Its first symptoms: discomfort in the visual organs, lacrimation, the appearance of spots and "flies" in front of the eyes. If a person has been using budget models for many years, sooner or later he runs the risk of encountering one of the ophthalmological pathologies that develop due to increased sensitivity to light rays.
Doctors recommend choosing polarized coated sunglasses. Such models protect the eyes from sunlight and ultraviolet rays, as well as from glare, which are formed when light is reflected from horizontal surfaces. Polarizing lenses have several layers, in the center of which is a transparent film. It blocks ultraviolet rays. Manufacturers of cheap models of sunglasses stick the film on one side only. Because of this, the level of protection is incomplete. Over time, the film erases, so low-quality models become not only useless, but also dangerous for the eyes.
Cheap sunglasses only reduce light intensity. They do not block glare, therefore they have a negative effect on the human eye. To prevent this, some manufacturers apply one of the protective coatings on the lenses. Most often - anti-reflective and photochromic. Such sunglasses transmit UV rays to the cornea less, but they cannot replace the polarizing filter. High-quality models pass no more than 50% of the sun's rays and block glare that reflects off horizontal surfaces. Often such glasses are selected by drivers, athletes and outdoor enthusiasts.
How to choose high-quality glasses by type of protection?
There are several types of solar radiation. They differ in the nature of the occurrence and the degree of impact on the visual organs of a person. About 40% of the radiation is visible. It helps to distinguish the colors of the spectrum and is not harmful to the eyes. About 50% of the sun's rays are infrared. They are necessary so that a person can feel the heat. The remaining 10% of the radiation is ultraviolet, which is invisible to the eyes. Depending on the wavelength, solar radiation is divided into several categories, which have the following notation:
- UVA - Longwave,
- UVB - wave-wave,
- UVC - Shortwave.
The most dangerous radiation is the long-wavelength. Its range is from 315 to 400 nm. It actively affects the lens, because of which it loses its transparency and acquires a yellowish tint. Often this causes cataracts. Medium wave radiation is less dangerous. It is in the range from 280 to 315 nm. Only a small fraction of it reaches the surface of the Earth. Mid-wave radiation absorbs the cornea of the eye. This leads to a loss of optical properties. The most safe short-wave radiation, which is from 100 to 280 nm. Most of it is delayed by the ozone layer.
Sunglasses made from quality materials have a special marking - an indicator of protection. The highest quality product has a UV 400 mark.
Such sunglasses block up to 99% of long-wave radiation. They have one drawback. When these sunglasses are worn continuously, white spots may form around the eyes. They arise because the skin in this place does not tan. The more popular model is labeled UV 380. Such ophthalmic products block up to 95% of harmful rays. Do not buy glasses that pass more than 50% of ultraviolet radiation. These models provide minimal protection.
Material Features and Sunglasses Lens Colors
Lenses are an important component of any ophthalmic products. Many buyers opt for glass lenses, believing that they are better and better block ultraviolet radiation. The main advantages of glass lenses:
- scratch resistance
- high optical properties
- abrasion resistance.
When buying sunglasses, you should pay attention that glass lenses block ultraviolet only partially. Their polymer counterparts cope much better with this. Plastic lenses prevent rays A and B from reaching the retina with wavelengths between 280 and 400 nm. Infrared radiation is best blocked by polarized sunglasses.
Acrylic and polycarbonate is a high-quality plastic that manufacturers most often use to create sunglasses. These materials have many advantages, and their use allows you to make plastic ophthalmic products cheaper than glass. The advantages of polymer lenses include:
- light weight
- eye safety
- high protective properties.
Polymer lenses are recommended for children to wear, as they are highly impact resistant. They can be scratched, but difficult to break, and therefore they are less traumatic. Even if the sunglasses are damaged, they do not injure the child’s eyes. These lenses are great for manufacturing sports and driving sunglasses.
When choosing sunglasses, you should also consider the color of the lenses. It should be uniform. Dimming lenses should be applied with the same intensity throughout the area. Do not choose glasses that have blackout only at the top. Such models may not absorb ultraviolet radiation well. This will lead to rapid eye fatigue.
Many people tend to choose sunglasses with dark lenses. It should be borne in mind that intense black, brown or dark gray color does not provide maximum protection from the sun. If you choose sunglasses at a low price, then the dark color of the lenses may be harmful to the eyes. This is due to the fact that under dark lenses the pupils expand and the visual organs absorb more ultraviolet radiation.
The best option is sunglasses with gray and green lenses. They provide accurate color reproduction and block UV rays well. For a trip to the sea or to the mountains, it is better to choose polarized sunglasses that protect the retina from ultraviolet radiation and glare. For cloudy days, it is recommended to choose golden yellow glasses that absorb blue color well.
Types of Sunglasses Frames
Optics stores offer a huge assortment of frames from any materials. The most popular are plastic frames. They are made from cellulose acetate, grilamide, nylon, optyl and other materials. They work well. From plastic, you can make a frame of any design. Choosing such sunglasses is the easiest, since they are available from any manufacturer. Plastic transmits a small amount of sunlight, it is strong and durable. You can choose sunglasses in a metal frame. For its production, titanium, aluminum and monel are usually used - an alloy of nickel and copper. Sometimes they have wooden inserts and look very stylish.
Before purchasing sunglasses, experts recommend that you carefully examine and try on ophthalmic products. You can open the earhooks several times, bend them slightly. Qualitative models are resilient and elastic. They keep their original shape well. The screws that secure the earhooks must be durable. If the frame is small, the earhooks will diverge. They can crush and quickly become worthless. If the frame is large, a gap is formed between the face and the side of the glasses. For quality sunglasses, the frame sizes are indicated on the earhook. You need to pay attention to the nose pads. When wearing glasses, there should be no gap between the frame and nose.
How to choose glasses according to face features?
For many people, sunglasses are a beautiful accessory, so it is recommended to buy them, taking into account the shape of the face. The choice in favor of massive frames should be made to the owners of a square face shape. If the frame is rimmed, then it is better to choose dark or bright shades. On a square face, both aviator glasses and “butterflies” will look good. Such models help smooth the geometry of the lower jaw and the angularity of the forehead. It is not recommended to buy square and rectangular frames, as they emphasize the shortcomings of the shape of the face.
Holders with a round face shape are perfect glasses with wide temples. The right choice would be models of pointed shapes that direct their eyes to the temple, stretching their faces. It is recommended to choose cat-eye glasses. Rectangular models will look good. Gloomy shades of frames are best avoided. Preference should be given to pastel colors: pale pink, peach, lilac, pearl. The combination of these rules will help visually lengthen the face. Not suitable for holders of round faces "tisheydy."
High cheekbones and a sharp chin are the hallmarks of a heart-shaped face. The main rule that you must follow when choosing sunglasses is to try to balance the heavy upper part of the face and the narrow lower one. Ideal for cat-eye or grand glasses, which have large lenses and a plastic frame. Thin frame is better not to choose. Models in which the upper part of the frame is more pronounced than the bottom will look good. You can pick up clubmaster sunglasses.
Most lucky owners of the oval face. How to choose sunglasses many of them are well aware. Absolutely any models are suitable for such people: square, rectangular, "cat's eye", "butterflies", clubmaster, "wifarer" and others. The oval shape of the face is proportional and has soft outlines. The ideal solution for its owners will be aviators with dark, gradient or mirror lenses.
The best sunglasses manufacturers - which company to choose
Sunglasses are in great demand, so the manufacturers of this product simply can not be counted. In each passage you can find handicraft production of the product, but it is unlikely that you can buy standing copies there. Only eminent brands that care about their reputation pay due attention to the development of not only beautiful, but also useful sun glasses.
To everyone who does not have time to fully familiarize themselves with the presented material, we suggest paying attention to the products of the following companies:
If you want to know which specific models have proven themselves in the market, then read our rating of the best sunglasses.
The principle of operation and the arrangement of sunglasses
Glasses in general, and sunglasses in particular, are the most popular optical device, which at the same time acts as a fashion accessory and a tool for protection from harmful radiation.
Standard models consist of a special frame to which the arms are attached. The front side of the frame has a rim in which the lenses and nose are located. The transfer may be with stops (fixed, movable) or without them.
It is best to choose those stops that are mounted on hinges, as this provides greater comfort when landing on the nose bridge, allowing you to adjust to the individual shape. The role of the arms is simple - they rely on the ears, fixing the glasses.
The principle of operation of sunglasses is to delay harmful UV rays with lenses.In addition, a correctly selected model is capable of performing many tasks, for example, adjusting the shape of the face, giving the appearance the necessary style, and complementing the image.
For athletes, drivers, extreme sportsmen - sunglasses are required, because these people are in special conditions requiring more attention.
The frame is usually one-piece, a frame made of plastic, trapezoidal lenses. The corners of the frame are either rounded or clearly defined. The size of the glasses is quite large, they are suitable for owners of an oval, diamond-shaped and pear-shaped face. Weifarers with sharp corners will adjust their round faces.
- fit the most common forms of faces,
- look stylish.
- not suitable for people with a triangular and square face.
Semi-rim frame, the frame is most often combined. The line runs exclusively along the top. Rectangular lenses are rounded at the bottom. This form of glasses perfectly emphasizes the eyebrows, shifting the emphasis to this part of the face.
- interesting design
- suitable for holders of trapezoid and pear-shaped persons,
- acceptable for some oval and round.
- not suitable for people with a square face shape.
One of the most fashionable forms at the moment. Harry Potter style round glasses usually have a one-piece frame and metal or plastic frames.
- unusual and extravagance,
- decorate oval faces
- with care choose people with a triangular face shape.
- not suitable for all other types of persons.
The frame is almost always solid, and the frame is wide, made of plastic. The corners near the temples are drawn up. The form is universal, harmoniously fits into most images.
- narrow lenses adjust round and square faces.
- exclusively female form of glasses,
- not suitable for angular faces (diamond-shaped, triangular, heart-shaped).
The frame is solid, the frame is usually thin and metal. Glasses were invented for aviators by Ray Ban. Products from other manufacturers - copies. This model is versatile.
- is in the collections of almost all firms
- perfectly corrects rectangular, oval, square, triangular, diamond-shaped faces.
- round, trapezoidal and pear-shaped persons does not fit,
- people with elongated faces should also abandon this form.
The whole frame, the frame is almost always made of plastic, the shape of the lens is approximated to a square. These are one of the largest points. Due to this size, the shape is quite versatile.
- strongly rounded corners are perfect for square and rectangular ones,
- ideal for triangular and diamond-shaped faces,
- catchy design and vibrant colors adjust the big nose.
- from the purchase should be discarded chubby.
Such glasses are rarely purchased as an accessory. Most often, they have many characteristics, depending on what kind of sport they are made for. The frame can be any, however, as well as frames with lenses.
- perform a number of specific tasks,
- have interchangeable lenses
- completely protect the eyes from external influences.
- fit only in sports style.
A feature of this form is one solid lens in which the nose is cut. The shape of the glasses is curved, fits the face well, leaves no gaps. The frame and frame can be any.
- there are no gaps
- large selection of sizes
- corrects polygonal and rhomboid faces.
- not suitable for holders of heart-shaped and triangular faces.
First of all, when choosing, look at the UV protection marking.
1. General - no more than half of the harmful rays are transmitted, ideal for the Russian climate. Ideal for wearing in urban environments.
2. Cosmetic - almost do not protect against hazardous radiation, retaining less than 20% of UV rays.
3. High UV-protection - such lenses provide reliable protection.
When buying glasses, consider the season in which you are going to wear them. The greater the solar activity, the higher should be the indicator of protection.
- For cloudy weather and twilight, lenses of the zero and first categories are well suited, where the light transmission ranges from 43 to 100%.
- For drivers and urban residents it is better to choose the second category (18-43%).
- In the summer, as well as for places where there is increased solar activity, you should choose the third category (8-18%).
- The fourth category (3-8%) will be ideal for skiers and extreme sports, as it will protect your eyes from dazzling rays reflected from glaciers and snow.
The frame material can be made of metal, plastic, as well as in the connected version:
- Glasses with a metal frame are rarely bulky, usually such a thin frame, made in the classic colors of silver or gold. The top is most often covered with a coating that protects the skin from contact with metal.
- The plastic frame is also quite light in weight. Unlike metal, it is used much more often in design, as it allows you to create not only classic, but also avant-garde models.
- In combined frames, both metal and plastic are partially used. This combination allows you to give special structural strength.
Lenses can be made of glass, as well as artificial materials:
- Quality glass is able to retain 100% of UV rays. In addition, such lenses look quite stylish and presentable. But the weight of the glasses with glass will be significantly more than other options using plastic.
- Lenses made of artificial materials are more often used in glasses of the initial and middle price categories. When buying, pay attention to the radiation protection marking, UV400 will be the maximum.
- The one-piece frame completely covers the lens with a rim. It can be made of metal or plastic.
- Semi-rim frames most often grasp the lens either from above or from below. The rest of the lens is held by a nylon fishing line. The material of manufacture, like that of an integral frame, is either plastic or metal.
- In the bezel-less version, the lenses are attached to the temples and by carrying plastic inserts or bolts.
What sunglasses to choose
1. Summing up, we can say that the first priority condition for choosing glasses will be protection from solar radiation. For a city, car trip, or off season, low values are appropriate. But for places with an active sun, only lenses with a high degree of protection are needed.
2. Light transmission also plays an important role. When choosing lenses for UV protection, do not forget to consider these categories. The less light passes through the lenses, the more comfortable the eye is in blinding sunshine. But for the city, driving or cloudy weather you need bright options.
3. The shape of the frames and lenses is important for face correction. Everything is very individual here, because even with the existing general recommendations, there is a high probability of error. The best way to find the perfect shape for yourself is only fitting. Please also note that the glasses should sit well, without squeezing or dangling anywhere.
How much are sunglasses
1. The cost of glasses with glasses ranges from 2 to 10 thousand rubles.
2. Plastic lenses and frames will cost a little cheaper, from 700 to 3 thousand rubles.
3. Sunglasses with high UV blocking rates will cost no less than 2 - 5 thousand rubles.
4. The more famous the brand, the higher the price for points. Exclusive models can reach the cost of tens or even hundreds of thousands of rubles.
5. Glasses in the shape of a mask and sports will cost more than usual, as they have an increased degree of protection, as well as additional accessories. Their approximate cost is 5 - 7 thousand rubles.
6. Glasses with jewelry and an unusual design are also more expensive than classic models. The approximate price of 5 - 15 thousand rubles.
Why this accessory
On bright days - not only bright and hot, but also have a serious strain on vision. From blinding, scorching rays you need to protect yourself. It is especially difficult for residents of large cities, where heat and light are reflected from metal and concrete structures, from asphalt, glass and many other materials. All this increases several times the discomfort.
It is not only in the summer to protect yourself - in the winter, light is reflected from the snow, often blinds pedestrians and drivers, creating dangerous situations. Good, high-quality sunglasses should cope with glare and rays, eliminate unpleasant and harmful effects. If there is a lot of snow on the street and the bright sun shines, it is not recommended to go for a walk without protection.
Too bright natural or artificial lighting can cause discomfort and pain in the eyes. The constant exposure to harmful ultraviolet light can lead to various problems with vision, cataracts or glaucoma. Therefore, do not leave your house in sunny weather without thinking about the availability of eye protection.
In addition, they must perform another function - to help the owner to be in the spotlight, to emphasize his personality and sense of style. It is important to pay attention to buying a fashion accessory, because the design of the selected model will be combined with clothing.
Frame and lens materials
The design of any pair consists of two main parts, the main thing is to determine in advance the material from which they can be made. For example, we highlight on the positive sides of plastic:
- Less prone to scratches and scuffs. Accidental mechanical damage can be easily avoided by purchasing a special storage bag.
- Lighter and more reliable, more resistant to falls.
- Less traumatic and does not break into fine dust like glass. Shards almost never get into the eye.
- Suitable for sports.
- Ultraviolet retention is better.
The glass lens boasts only one positive side - it looks more respectable. She gives things a solid, serious appearance, which in many cases is meaningless.
Manufacturers offer the following rim materials:
The advantages of the first option are obvious - it has higher operational and technical characteristics, but sometimes it does not fit the image or along with it. Wood inlays look stylish.
It is important to check how mobile the nose pads and earhooks are, as well as the ability to adjust and set the desired position. If it is impossible to adjust, then such a model will rub your nose and put pressure on your head, it will be impossible to wear.
Lens color and dimming
Coloring must be uniform. If the blackout is on top and a pale hue remains below, then the eyes will be tired all the time. The dark part will not absorb all the rays of the visible spectrum.
It is worth remembering that not the intensity of the paint becomes a barrier to the rays. Rather, on the contrary - if the glass is too dark, but without a protective filter, it will do more harm. The whole difficulty is that with too dark lenses, the pupil expands and begins to absorb an increased amount of negative impact.
|Color||What gives||Where to wear|
|Green gray||Natural colors||In any setting|
|Golden yellow||Remove excess blue||In cloudy weather|
|Polarized||Removes too bright shades.||In the mountains, on the beach|
|Mirror||Helps reflect||On high|
|Photochromic||Able to change and adapt to lighting||In any setting|
|Graduated||Partially darkened||In any environment, preferably driving|
Well-crafted lenses prevent color distortion. If the world has become a different color, then the product is not high quality.
Degrees of light transmission
Accessories purchased in a company salon must have a special digital marking. It is needed to indicate the indicator and determine the effectiveness of the protection of the retina from ultraviolet radiation.
There are 5 marking options:
- 0 - practically does not protect the product, they pass almost all the light that enters the face,
- 1 - delay the minimum amount of ultraviolet radiation, miss up to 80%,
- 2 - less than half the rays reach the eyes - 43-15%,
- 3 - helps to cope with long walks, travels and work on the street, it is advisable to use while relaxing on the beach,
- 4 - almost does not pass harmful radiation, only 5% passes through, it is great when vacationing in a hot country or at a ski resort.
How to choose the right glasses for the sun? Focus on the numbers indicated. If they are not, then the default category is 0.
The type of protection varies between models. The maximum can be found in specimens that have a polarization coating. Even if the lighting changes dramatically or there is glare, the lenses can handle it. Especially true for people who plan a vacation in the mountains, among ice and snow, or on water - sudden changes in light in such areas are common.
In addition, it is often recommended to purchase such options for drivers who spend a lot of time behind the wheel. Reflections of headlights, wet asphalt or ice can adversely affect photosensitivity.
Life hack, how to choose sunglasses by type of protection - put them on yourself and pick up a mobile phone. On the smartphone, you need to set the maximum possible brightness and white background, and start turning it before your eyes. Proper polarized lenses should darken and lighten, adjusting to the situation and leveling out excess light.
The improved formula allows you to remove excess ultraviolet light and delay the flow of light. If the future owner of a stylish accessory has photophobia or does not want to see a bright illumination, then it is worth taking a closer look at such models.
It is important to know that to create such an unusual material, substances are used that behave more actively at subzero temperatures and worse in hot weather.
If you need to choose the best sunglasses for the beach, then photochromic will not work. But it will be useful to lovers of ski resorts and drivers who prefer to travel at night.
A couple more checks for originality
If the choice fell on polarizing lenses, then it is worthwhile to conduct an additional test. After all, you need to pay only for branded functional goods, and not for fakes, which will only bring harm to the eyes. One of the methods described above.
You can also use the hologram, which is usually bundled with the original product. When checking and, in order to choose the right sunglasses for quality, look - the pattern must appear when looking through the polarization. In rare cases, you can ask for a hologram from the seller.
The last, ambiguous way to check the performance is to take a second similar instance and start moving it at a distance of 15 cm, as is the case with a smartphone. The lenses should darken on each side of the experiment, if not darkening is not 100%, then some of the used samples will not completely polarize.
Basic care rules
If you competently take care of the selected model, then you can extend the service life with maximum protective properties. The rules that will help you not part with your favorite frame for several years are very simple:
- It doesn’t matter whether a thing is constantly worn or lying on a shelf waiting for its time, you need to store it in a special bag-case. This will help to avoid loss of key properties and accidental scratches.It will also protect you from dust collection in corners and inaccessible places.
- Even the best sunglasses will go bad if you put them down constantly. Any inaccurate movement - and a scratch may appear on them. It is better to clean it if necessary in a special bag. Or glasses up.
- Do not wipe with the first rag or cloth that has come across, the more you can not use the edge of the clothing for these purposes. This, too, can lead to scuffs and scratches, and will also constantly leave fibers on the surface. It is advisable to purchase a special microfiber cloth, often these are sold complete with the model.
- Good sunglasses are not afraid of swimming in soapy water or in water, if the quality is at their best, they can easily withstand such tests. You can also purchase a special spray and process lenses with it. It is important that aggressive and corrosive substances, acetone or a solvent are not present in the branded liquid.
You don’t have to worry so much for the frame, it is resistant to any events, except for falls from a great height and mechanical stresses. Careful handling is all that may be required. How to choose high-quality sunglasses - contact a specialized online store or salon, check before buying.
Models suitable for driving
In this niche, people choose less in terms of design and style, and more in terms of comfort and useful properties.
When choosing a driver’s lens, you should pay attention to:
Such samples will not create glare or artificial mirages, this sets them apart from the rest, allowing you to keep the situation on the road under full control.
It is advisable to purchase a copy on which there is anti-reflective coating. This makes them somewhat more expensive, but the quality will be much higher. To choose good sunglasses, consider those that have a polarizing or photochromic coating.
Among these options, there are none with diopters, but you can wear contact lenses at the same time.