Youthful acne (acne) is the most common skin disease in children and adolescents. The onset of the disease usually manifests itself in girls aged 12-14 years, in boys aged 14-15 - due to late puberty.
Youthful acne (acne) is the most common skin disease in children and adolescents. The onset of the disease usually manifests itself in girls aged 12-14 years, in boys aged 14-15 - due to late puberty. Currently, the myth that the development of acne depends on the nature of food, age hygiene, sexual life is debunked. Acne is a disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles, the functioning of which is associated with the exchange of sex hormones. It is generally recognized that the skin is the main link in the metabolism of sex steroid hormones, and the main “targets” for them are the epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Changes in the functional activity of the endocrine system in adolescents in different periods of puberty have their own characteristics. At each stage of development, the sequential inclusion and functioning of the endocrine glands, hormones and biologically active substances occur. They are in close interaction with the synthesis of testosterone (Te) and sex steroids that bind globulin (PSSG), secreted by hepatocytes. In addition, the mechanisms of central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary system are changing, which is reflected in the secretion of sex steroid hormones. During puberty with acne, the relationship between androgens and estrogens is disrupted, and there are twice as many androgens as in healthy individuals. So, in the development of acne, the leading role is given to Te and its metabolite - dihydrotestosterone (DTT), whose biosynthesis is 20-30 times higher than in healthy people, and this process is more intense in young men than in girls. At the same time, the biosynthesis of certain skin enzymes also increases: the activity of 3-hydroxydehydrogenase and 5-reductase is also significantly increased compared to the norm. The latter translates free Te into DHT, which is the main hormone involved in hypersecretion of the sebaceous gland.
Hypersecretion of sebum is the result of a high level of androgens and increased sensitivity of the sebaceous glands to them.
Of decisive importance in this case are: the direct effect of the increased content of androgens in the blood on hair follicles and sebaceous glands, an increase in the sensitivity of target cells, sex steroid receptors to circulating androgens, a combination of these two factors.
The secretion of sebum and the size of the sebaceous glands are stimulated by free testosterone of testicular or ovarian origin, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione of the adrenal origin. Progesterone, a precursor to testosterone, estrogens, and adrenocorticosteroids, has the same effect. Progesterone enhances the secretion of the sebaceous glands due to androgenic and antiestrogenic activity. This fact explains the increase in sebum secretion and the appearance of acne elements before menstruation in women.
An increase in the level of androgens in the blood can be of a temporary physiological nature, for example, in the premenstrual period in women.
Sometimes a high level of free testosterone is due to a decrease in the level of sex hormone binding globulin (PSSG). This protein, which binds 65% of those circulating in the blood, is synthesized in the liver. Another part combines with albumin, and only 2% of the circulating total testosterone remains in an active unbound form. Therefore, markers of latent hyperandrogenism in males are an increase in the free fraction of Te rather than total testosterone and a decrease in PSSH (N. E. Kushlinsky, V. A. Samsonov, S. A. Masyukova, I. V. Salamova, 1996).
In women, an important pathogenetic link in hyperandrogenism is a violation of the binding of androgens to specific sex-steroid-binding globulin (SSH), and its concentration is twice as high as in men. This sex difference is explained by the fact that estrogens stimulate and androgens inhibit the production of SSH.
Genetic factors are the starting point in the development of acne, and, according to K. N. Suvorova (2000), different expressivity and allelic variations of the genes that determine the development of sebaceous glands and their functional ability, and the level of enzymes and hormones to a large extent determine the severity of clinical manifestations . In addition, there is a message about the presence of a nuclear R-factor that determines the genetic predisposition. These facts can probably explain the fact that some patients develop rapidly passing physiological acne, while others develop more severe forms. According to numerous studies, the likelihood of developing acne in adolescents, in the presence of a disease in the family or relatives, ranges from 50-70%.
In addition to androgenic stimulation, hypersecretion of sebum, with sebaceous glands, in most patients, the onset of acne is accompanied by hyperkeratinization of the base of the follicle, which leads to clogging of the follicular duct with horny scales and the formation of micro comedone, either clinically visible - closed (white head) or open (black head). In the future, damage and rupture of the duct occur, followed by the development of perifocal inflammation. Retention hyperkeratosis of the acronym of the follicle and hyperplasia of the follicular epithelium are decisive in the development of the disease.
Blockage of the duct of the sebaceous gland entails the cessation of air access, and the created oxygen-free conditions are optimal for reproduction P. acnestherefore, closed comedones are called a “time bomb”. P. acnes normally found in the sebaceous glands and follicles. On the skin there are also staphylococci (epidermal and golden), micrococci, fungi of the genus Candida and Pytirosporum ovale. The number of colonies of microorganisms is proportional to the severity of acne elements: comedones - open and closed, papules, pustules. The outcome of inflammation, as well as the predominance of one of the pathogenetic factors, largely determines the diversity of the clinical forms of the disease.
An important aspect is participation. P. acnes in the development of inflammation: they synthesize various chemoattractants that attract white blood cells to the focus of inflammation, lipase, and a number of enzymes that damage the follicle wall. They are able to induce the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines by mononuclear cells: IL-8, IL-1, TNF, etc., synthesize antigens that stimulate the production of antibodies, the amount of which is increased in acne patients compared to healthy people. P. acnes produce vasoactive amines like histamine, which increase inflammation. If comedones and papular-pustular rashes are characterized by high contamination of P. acnes, then with nodular-cystic rashes, the number P. acnes minimally. The formation of conglobate acne is probably associated not so much with the number of microorganisms as with the delayed-type hyperreaction (HRT) in the dermis, this can explain the high therapeutic effect of isotretinoin.
The peculiarity of propions largely determines the resolution of inflammatory acne elements. Unlike most strepto- and staphyloderma, inflammatory acne elements resolve more slowly, despite intensive treatment. Therapy tolerance due to resistance P. acnes to destruction by neutrophils and monocytes, persistence in phagocytic cells, where microorganisms remain viable for a long time, despite antibiotic therapy. In addition, the overproduction of fat does not make it possible to create the necessary concentration of antibiotic in the ducts of the sebaceous gland. This may explain the appointment of long-term courses of antibiotics in the treatment of acne.
Thus, genetic predisposition, androgenic stimulation, increased sebum secretion and follicular hyperkeratosis lead to blockage of the duct of the sebaceous gland by comedones. As a result of reproduction P. acnes and the formation of inflammation around the follicle and sebaceous gland, non-inflammatory and inflammatory acne elements (papule, pustule, nodule) are formed. Depending on the nature of the inflammation and the spread of the pathological process in the dermis, the foci can become denser, infiltrate or abscess with the formation of cysts, which explains the variety of clinical manifestations of the disease. In the course of therapy or spontaneously with the resolution of acne elements, spots, depigmented scars, hypertrophic or disfiguring keloid scars remain.
Often in adolescents, the onset of the disease is accompanied by the appearance of non-inflammatory and inflammatory acne elements, which are regarded as “physiological” acne. They accompany the pubertal hormonal crisis and, due to their insignificant manifestation (comedones, single papular-pustular acne elements), can disappear spontaneously and without a trace without treatment. “Clinical” acne is observed in 15% of patients and requires treatment lasting from several months to a year or more or until spontaneous remission, usually occurring by 25 years, is achieved.
According to modern classification, the following clinical varieties of juvenile acne are distinguished (G. Plevig, A. Cligman, 1993, 2000).
- Comedone acne.
- Papular pustular acne.
- Conglobate acne.
- Inverse blackheads.
- Lightning blackheads.
- Mechanical acne.
The development and course of dermatosis depends on the following factors: family (genetic) predisposition, the clinical form of the disease, type and color of the skin. When conducting clinical diagnosis, the following features of acne should be considered:
- type of rash (inflammatory or non-inflammatory),
- the number of rashes and their prevalence, size and localization,
- the severity of complications (pigmentation, excoriation, scars),
- assessment of psychosocial status (anxiety, depression, social maladaptation, etc.),
- if necessary, bacterial culture with determination of sensitivity to antibiotics, studies of hormonal status, skin biopsy for differential diagnosis with other dermatoses,
- patients with severe and often recurring forms of acne should be examined for the presence of concomitant pathology,
- measurement of the level and speed of excretion of sebum (SES),
- building trust between the doctor and the patient.
In the pathogenesis of acne, primary and secondary factors leading to the development of the disease are distinguished.
The main principles of treatment: it is necessary to reduce the secretion of the sebaceous gland, weaken inflammation, reduce skin colonization Propionbacterium acnes and other microorganisms, normalize the mitotic activity of keratinocytes and eliminate blockage of the duct of the sebaceous gland.
In many cases, treatment is a difficult task, and the use of various therapeutic methods and cosmetics leads only to clinical remission, less often to cure. The choice of therapy is determined not only by the severity of acne, but also by the general condition, psycho-emotional characteristics of the individual.
Currently, recommendations and an algorithm for the pathogenetic treatment of various forms of acne have been developed (XX World Congress of Dermatology, Paris, 2002).
The main tasks in the treatment are:
- prevention of the formation of comedones (preventive measures and tips for caring for “problem” skin),
- removal of comedones (acne toilet, comedoextraction, tretinoin, retinoic acid, adapalene, salicylic acid, resorcinol),
- a decrease in sebum production (retinoids systemically and externally, hormonal drugs - antiandrogens, estrogens, etc.),
- prevention of the opening of comedones, pustules and the development of inflammation (systemic antibiotics and external antibacterial drugs),
- combination therapy (systemic antibiotics and external retinoids or sequential use of glucocorticoids, systemic retinoids, in severe forms of acne),
- prevention of scarring (early treatment, retinoids, excluding the possibility of mechanical injury to acne elements),
- improving the appearance of scars only after achieving stable clinical remission (peeling, resurfacing, the introduction of implants, corticosteroids, laser therapy, etc.).
The choice of treatment method depends on the following factors: the clinical form of the disease, the nature of the acne elements (non-inflammatory, inflammatory), severity (mild, moderate, severe), depth, localization and prevalence of the process (see table 1).
For example, comedone acne is better treated with topical retinoids, while retinoids, topical antibiotics, BPO, etc. are indicated for mild inflammatory acne. In addition to the severity of the lesion, acne should take into account the complications of dermatosis in the form of scarring, pigmentation, and also psychosocial problems.
In practice, systemic and external retinoids are first-choice drugs and were first used to treat acne about 30 years ago by Stuttgen and Baer. Retinoids of the first, second and third generations have a general and local effect and are capable of eliciting a specific biological response as a result of binding and activation of retinoic acid receptors - RAR (retinoid acid receptor).
The mechanism of action of retinoids is inhibition of keratinization processes (keratinization), a decrease in sebum secretion, as well as activityR. acnes and enhancing the proliferation of epithelial cells of the skin and sebaceous glands, thus affecting all parts of the pathogenesis of the disease.
Indications for external therapy are: mild non-inflammatory and inflammatory forms of acne, as well as non-inflammatory forms of moderate severity.
Perhaps a combined appointment with systemic drugs for inflammatory acne of moderate severity and severe forms.
Adapalen (Differin), a derivative of naphthoic acid, which has not only retinoid properties, but also anti-inflammatory effects, belongs to the group of synthetic retinoids of the new (third) generation.
The anti-comedogenic-comedolytic effect of differin is based on selective interaction with nuclear epithelial cell γ-receptors (RAR-γ), as a result of which the differentiation processes of keratinocytes in the funnel of the sebaceous gland are improved and the production of sebum is normalized (blockage of the duct is prevented), as well as proliferation of skin corneocytes. Thus, differin prevents the formation of micro comedones and helps to remove the “keratin plug” (comedogenic and comedonolytic effect).
The anti-inflammatory effect of differin has also been studied in vitro and in vivo. It was found that the drug inhibits the release of cytokines (markers of inflammation) - IL-1, IL-8, IL-12 - through competitive binding to TLR2 monocyte receptors. In addition, there is an inhibition of lipoxygenase and arachidonic acid, which is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in the skin. The unique pharmacological properties of diferin explain its advantages (anti-inflammatory effect, better tolerance) over trans retinoic and retinoic acid.
One of the disadvantages of external retinoids is their mild effect on hypersecretion of the sebaceous glands, which requires, in some cases, the appointment of systemic retinoids (isotretinoin) in adequate doses for severe forms of acne. The drugs are prescribed for a long time (up to three months or more), as well as for prophylactic purposes to prevent the appearance of new acne elements.
For the treatment of conglobate acne, the base drug is isotretinoin-roaccutane at 0.5-1.0 mg / kg body weight per day until a total cumulative dose of 120 mg / kg is achieved. In addition, antibiotic treatment gives a temporary result, and after their cancellation, frequent relapses are noted. In adolescence, the use of antibiotics should be limited to prescribing short courses of no more than four to six weeks, so the emphasis is on the use of topical drugs of multidirectional action, especially with mild to moderate severity of juvenile acne.
With mechanical acne (pathomimia), psychological rehabilitation, building trust with adolescents, and the administration of sedatives in combination with topical pathogenetic drugs are necessary.
In severe fulminant and inverse acne, treatment begins with the administration of glucocorticoids (prednisone) in a daily dose of 20-30 mg with a gradual decrease in dose by 0.05 mg every five days until the drug is completely discontinued. Prednisolone is prescribed in combination with antibiotics (according to antibiotic sensitivity), and then switch to isotretinoin in adequate doses: 0.5-1.0 mg / kg body weight per day until a total cumulative dose of 120 mg / kg is achieved.
Systemic therapy (oral antibiotics, isotretinoin), often in combination with topical drugs, is indicated for the treatment of patients with moderate or severe acne. The basic antibiotics are tetracyclines: tetracycline - a daily dose of 500 mg twice a day, tetracycline monohydrate - 0.1 mg twice a day, minocycline - 0.1 mg twice a day, macrolides: erythromycin 500 mg twice a day , josamycin: 500 mg twice daily. Alternative drugs for intolerance to antibiotics are cotrimoxazole 480 mg twice or timetoprim 100-200 mg from 14 to 21 days. If one antibiotic is ineffective in some cases, it can be replaced by another. However, long-term antibiotic therapy may cause resistance. P. acnesas a result of which the treatment becomes ineffective.
When treating with isotretinoin, it should be remembered that young people with trunk injuries respond worse to low-dose treatment, so they should be given a starting dose of 1.0 mg / kg, and for older people with sensitive (white) skin - 0.5 mg / kg day, with mandatory monthly biochemical control.
In the pharmaceutical market for topical (external) therapy, various commercial firms offer modern drugs that have comedogenic, keratolytic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiandrogenic properties. One of their drawbacks is the mild effect on hypersecretion of the sebaceous glands, which in some cases requires the use of systemic retinoids (isotretinoin) in adequate doses. The drugs are prescribed for a long time (up to three months or more), as well as for prophylactic purposes - to prevent the appearance of new acne elements.
The main drugs for external treatment of acne, as well as systemic, are retinoids, as well as antibacterial drugs - benzoyl peroxide (Baziron AC), local forms of antibiotics (clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, mupirocin, fusidic acid) and systemic antibiotics, alternative ones are azelaic acid hyaluronic acid.
Azelaic acid, a natural dicarboxylic acid (skinorene), has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, normalizes keratinization processes, blocks 5-α-reductase and the conversion of testosterone to 5-dihydrotestosterone.
In cosmetology, β-hydroxy acids (salicylic acid), as well as resorcinol in small concentrations (1-3%), and α-hydroxy acids (ANA) are used - malic, tartaric, citrus, lactic and glycolic acids. It should be remembered that topical antibiotics are not recommended to be combined with systemic antibiotics.
Baziron AS containing benzoyl peroxide does not develop resistance in microorganisms to the antibacterial drug, so it can be used with long courses of treatment, as well as as maintenance therapy. In addition, the risk of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms decreases when combined with benzoyl peroxide. Water-based gel for external use Baziron AS in addition to antibacterial and anti-inflammatory also has comedonolytic and moisturizing effects. The combination preparation Baziron AC contains an acrylic copolymer-glycerin system, which provides controlled absorption of sebum and skin hydration: the gel is indicated for all skin types, including sensitive.
An important place in the rehabilitation of acne patients and the prevention of complications is given to compliance with the recommendations for facial skin care (acne toilet) using maintenance therapy with topical retinoids, cleansing lotions, gels that do not have comedogenic effects. Each of these drugs for topical and systemic action has its advantages and side effects, so it is very important to follow the recommendations given by your doctor.
S. A. Masyukova, doctor of medical sciences, professor
Z. S. Bekmagomaev, S. A. Razumov, N. V. Gunin
GIUV MO RF, Moscow
The evolution of the morphological elements of blackheads is as follows: closed comedones and milia, open comedones, follicular papules and nodes, follicular pustules, scars and spots (vascular, hyper- and hypopigmented).
Closed comedones - small surface skin cysts inside - whitish or slightly yellow vesicles filled with sebum and epidermal cells), no larger than 1 mm, rising above the skin or located in the thickness of the skin, determined by palpation in the form of small seals.
Open comedones look like dots with a diameter of 0.1 to 1 mm, sometimes they rise above the skin. Their color is light yellow, brown, and even black.
The follicular papule is a small conical pink or bright red nodule with a diameter of 1-3 mm. Usually rises above the skin, has an inflammatory infiltrate around.
Pustules - papules turn into them over time, there are transitional stages - “papule-pustules”. Pustules are superficial when the vesicles - yellowish pustules are located close to the surface of the skin, or deep.
Over time, the pustules burst, with the separation of pus, and heal by the formation of temporary thickenings of the epidermis. Scars in their place do not form, but cyanotic spots may remain, more often when injuring, squeezing blackheads.
Small pustules dry without separation of pus when using drying agents.
Knots are deep inflammatory elements, reach the size of a pea and more, painful, dense, welded to the surface of the skin, resolve for a long time, can last for weeks, after involution heal with scarring.
Causes of occurrence
Adolescent acne on the skin, in addition to hormonal changes, can be triggered by the following factors:
- The unstable emotional and psychological background inherent in the emerging organism.
- The pathological inflammatory process begins with the formation of a sebaceous plug in the duct of the gland. So much sebum is produced so much that it constantly accumulates in the excretory cavity, thickens and forms subcutaneous infiltrates.
The following factors usually influence the appearance of acne in adolescents:
- seasonal and climatic
- hormonal changes during puberty,
- diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract,
- violation of the functioning of the endocrine glands,
- improper skin care or lack thereof: for example, abuse of powder, foundation,
- prolonged sun exposure.
Excessive production of sebum leads to clogging of pores. Also, the pores can become clogged by the horny scales of the follicular duct, then micro comedone is formed - closed or open ("black dots").
Blockage of the duct of the sebaceous gland helps to stop the access of air, from which bacteria multiply.
Often, the development of acne occurs during hormonal bursts in the body. There are other common causes, such as:
Hormonal disbalance. At the time of sexual formation in the body, the level of sex hormones rises. This leads to a malfunction in the nervous system and increases the activity of the sebaceous glands, as a result of which, due to an excess of fat secretion, pores are clogged and rashes appear.
Avitaminosis. Deficiencies in vitamin A and B vitamins also suggest skin problems. Their lack indicates an unhealthy diet. Just these vitamins affect the stability of the glands and the renewal of processes in the skin cells.
Oily skin. The oily epidermis can be affected by genetic factors and hormonal interruptions that increase the production of sebaceous secretion.
Demodecosis. Demodex is an intradermal tick that lives on almost any person. However, excessively oily skin and elevated levels of hormones serve as a favorable environment for its activation.
Acne in adolescents
- Light - comedone acne - up to 20 comedones, up to 10 pustules. Nodes, cysts, fistulas, inflammations, scars - no.
- Medium - papulopustular acne - more than 20 comedones, 10-20 pustules, up to 10 nodes, there are clear signs of inflammation. Cyst, fistula, scars - no.
- Severe - papulopustular acne - more than 20 comedones, more than 20 pustules, 10-20 nodes, many cysts and fistulas, severe inflammation, scars are present.
- Very severe - conglobate acne - multiple comedones and pustules, more than 20 nodes, many cysts and fistulas, very severe inflammation, many scars.
Symptoms of Acne
Youth acne can be open and closed.
Closed comedones are white nodules that are not visible on the skin surface. Due to the fact that dust accumulates in the pores over time, black spots appear on the skin epithelium, which come to the surface. Usually they are in the forehead and chin.
If the already existing acne becomes inflamed further, and the treatment does not arrive in time and cannot be disposed of in time, a pimple will appear, which is characterized as a red-blue dense tubercle under the skin that looks like a pea.
Scars may remain from large such bubbles. They need to be treated.
Conventional puberty acne does not require serious therapy. However, not only a dermatologist treats her, he can advise a teenager to seek help from a nutritionist.
The nutritionist will analyze the adolescent’s diet, and then remove all comedogenic foods from it, such as sweets, sodas, chocolate, strong hot drinks such as coffee and tea, river fish, seaweed and foods that are high in iodine.
When treating acne of mild to moderate severity, it is best to combine products for external use and thorough daily skin care. Two modern, effective and safe preparations for external use can be distinguished, these are Baziron and Skinoren.
Baziron necessary to suppress bacterial colonies, exfoliate dead skin cells, oxidation of sebum.
It also prevents the formation of black dots. It is applied to the cleansed face precisely, twice a day, the result appears after several months of regular use.
Among the side effects, overdrying of the skin, leading to peeling, can be noted.
Skinoren created on the basis of azelaic acid, characterized by a complex mechanism of action.
The tool inhibits bacterial growth, disinfects the skin, treats inflammation. In addition, Skinoren helps lighten acne scars.
In the first few days, it can cause discomfort in the area of application, manifested in tingling, irritation and local redness.
Improvements will become noticeable after 6 months of regular use. It is used pointwise, once a day. There are practically no side effects if the dosage is not exceeded.
To begin with, the skin should be cleaned and dried, then apply the ointment to the lesions with acne, avoiding its contact with healthy skin.
The regularity of use is also important, since it is impossible to get rid of acne in one day. After a steady remission, Skinoren and Baziron can sometimes be used for preventive purposes.
The technique appeared relatively recently, but managed to prove itself positively. Clogged sebaceous ducts open painlessly, removes excess sebum, removes a layer of dead skin and dead cells.
How to treat acne in adolescents
Often, various therapeutic methods, as well as cosmetics, lead to remission, less often - to solve the problem. When choosing a therapy, one should rely not only on the severity of acne, but also take into account the general condition of the teenager.
The main objectives of the treatment:
- prevent the formation of comedones,
- remove comedones,
- reduce sebum production,
- prevent the opening of comedones and the development of inflammation,
- use combination therapy
- prevent scarring.
Topically used agents in the treatment of acne in adolescents are used when there are no signs of inflammation.
Their action is aimed at reducing the formation of new blackheads. Typically, dermatologists prescribe drugs for the treatment of acne, such as:
Special gels, lotions, creams are good in treating acne on the back and other parts of the body. They contain products that can soften hard plugs and open pores.
It can be antibiotics, comedolytics, sulfur, resorcinol. Teenagers can take such drugs from a few months to 1 year.
Acne treatment products containing erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and sulfamethoxazole are taken for 2 to 4 months.
Their intake may be accompanied by digestive upset, dizziness, allergic reactions, genital candidiasis infections, and even discoloration of the teeth.
The treatment of acne in adolescents with its moderate form is to minimize inflammatory changes and prevent the formation of new acne.
They must be used within 2 to 4 months.
Severe forms of acne require ingestion of Isotretinoin, which reduces the secretion of sebum. In combination with antibiotics, this drug is taken 4 to 5 months.
Juvenile acne usually does not require global treatment. It can be limited to the use of special cleansers that can degrease the skin and normalize sebum secretion.
After analyzing the diet of an adult child, it is necessary to eliminate chocolate, strong tea, coffee, fish, seaweed and all iodine-containing foods from it.
What kind of food should be constantly present in the diet of a young person suffering from acne? She is like this:
- high zinc foods (crabs, shrimp, soybeans),
- fiber-rich foods
- any dairy products,
- fruits and vegetables.
When adolescents or their parents turn to doctors for help, the rash usually already has a moderate or severe form, which cannot be cured without a thoughtful integrated approach.
To begin with (especially for girls), you need to contact a cosmetologist, who will make the most simple plan for a teenager aimed at preventing new rashes and eliminating old ones.
Tentatively, therapy will look like this:
- Special diets reduce the formation of sebum.
- They treat acne inflammation using cosmetic procedures that can suppress pathogens inside the follicle - microcurrent therapy, treatment with a neodymium laser.
- Remove comedones and pustules by mechanical, vacuum, ultrasonic or chemical methods.
- They cleanse the pores and remove dead cells with one of the types of peeling. This reduces possible scarring.
- Stimulate regenerative processes using mesotherapy, cryotherapy.
Prescribe a regular remedy for home antiseptic processing and removal of excess fat.
Complex effects of this kind are possessed by Dalacin T, Zinerit, Clindamycin, Skinoren.
The most affordable option is the use of salicylic acid, among which there is both cheap salicylic alcohol and the widely advertised drug CLEAN & CLEAR ADVANTAGE.
If the rash is complicated by atheromas or boils, a dermatologist can not do without. The doctor will conduct an examination, send the teenager for additional consultations with an endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, gynecologist, so that they help to identify and eliminate the root cause of the disease.
For his part, a dermatologist is required to prescribe and monitor the use of drugs that are potentially dangerous and not used in cosmetology:
Means to reduce the production of sebum. Widely known drugs based on retinoic acid - Adapalen, Tretinoin, Roaccutane, retinoic ointment.
In boys, the level of androgens constantly increases during the period of growing up, so they are much more likely to need acne treatment than girls of the same age.
Modern medicine has many methods for treating teenage rashes. The intensity of the course of therapy depends on the number of rashes and the stage of development of skin disease.
Sometimes the question of teenage acne is decided by itself as the boy grows up, but hoping for this can harm the health of the child and miss the onset of a serious skin disease.
The first rule of treatment for teenage rashes is daily personal hygiene. Today on the market there are many products for washing problem skin.
Various cleansing gels, creams, foams will help to clean pores well. Along with washing, you can remove from the skin all accumulated dirt, dust particles that collected on it in a day.
For deep cleansing, you need to use peeling and face masks from a special series for teenagers. In order not to dry the skin during cleaning, cosmetics are selected according to its type.
After proper cleansing, a moisturizer is applied. At the time of treatment and for prevention, the boy should have a personal towel for hygiene.
Means with salicylic acid have long been known for their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. The substance should be applied carefully and precisely for a better effect.
Do not forget that in addition to harmful bacteria, salicylic acid can break the natural protective barrier by overdrying the skin.
You can’t apply the product too often and uncontrollably, since subcutaneous fat will begin to stand out even more.
At a young age, it is quite difficult to cleanse the skin from acne, but it is possible to alleviate the condition. It is not necessary to take antibiotics without a doctor's prescription (since antibiotics contain a lot of aggressive substances).
There are several rules for keeping the skin in aesthetic condition:
The appearance on the face of inflammation is associated with increased activity of the sebaceous glands. This happens during puberty due to hormonal changes and the activation of androgens (before that, the sebaceous glands are inactive and produce little secret). The enhanced synthesis of androgens in a child begins at 7-8 years and reaches a peak in the puberty.
The causes of acne in adolescents and adults vary. In the former, this is most often hormonal changes in the body, while in adults, rashes can cause hormone surges due to illness, drugs, stress, poor skin care, poor nutrition, and sun exposure.
12 years is the age when mom needs to be especially careful. Do not expect the daughter (and especially the son) to come, complain about skin problems, ask for advice. This option is possible, but often the children become isolated, even relatives begin to be shy, try to cope with acne on their own. Get ready for the fact that you will need to take the child by the hand to a specialist who will explain what happens to the body and why acne appears, talk about the need for hygienic procedures, select the right care, and, if necessary, treatment. You can try to do all of the above yourself, but remember: did you carefully listen to your parents at age 15?
Oily sheen and single pimples indicate, at a minimum, problem skin. If at the same time ten or more red sore spots or five or more full-fledged abscesses appear on the face, this is already acne. Its main manifestation is comedones, which are open and closed. Closed comedone is a sebaceous gland in which sebum builds up and cannot go outside, resulting in a white non-inflammatory head. Such pimples, though not very aesthetic, but for the time being are quite friendly - they do not inflame and do not hurt. You can detect them if you hold it on the skin with your fingers - you will feel a clear tuberosity and roughness.
Exogenous and endogenous factors can be provoking factors for exacerbating acne. Endogenous include diseases and certain medications. Among exogenous causes, improper care, ultraviolet, and a decrease in local immunity are distinguished.
Open comedone is a cork that clogs the follicle as a result of accumulation of sebum, dead epidermal cells, and dust in the duct. Under the influence of oxygen, the upper layer oxidizes and darkens, and the pore looks like a black dot. If inflammation joins such a comedone, a papule is formed ─ irritation in the form of a red tubercle. Acne occurs when Propionibacterium acne ─ propionibacteria acne joins the inflammation. They live in abundance on healthy skin, but they feel much better in the sebum-horn plugs of the hair follicles ─ the environment in which they begin to multiply actively and fruitfully. The more inflammatory reactions that occur in a turgor, the worse the quality and appearance of the skin. Needless to say, this scenario is best avoided?
Do this without hesitation, and hit the children's hands, which are drawn to inflammation. Squeezing a pimple is a natural desire, especially when it is large, ugly and painful. This can make the problem worse. When an acne is squeezed out, firstly, the skin literally breaks and the integrity of the cover is violated, secondly, the follicle is damaged, and thirdly, all the purulent contents, which are assumed to bloom in a violent color, are not often removed. The result is a scar or a new inflammatory formation.
Teach Proper Care
Skin care with acne is a daily ritual, all stages of which need to be learned, not confused and not missed. Teach your teenager to wash twice a day with warm water. Refuse soap and use special cleansing agents for oily skin (preferably ─ gels and foams). After washing, apply lotion or tonic - they rid the skin of the remnants of everything superfluous, prepare for applying the cream, disinfect and dry, narrow the pores, have a matting effect. The final stage is a special care cream for oily and problem skin (read also: “Theory and practice: care for oily and dry skin with acne”).
In the active stage of acne, the use of decorative cosmetics is not desirable, but in the "quiet" periods, the skin is quite tolerant to makeup. The main thing is that it is light and slightly layered. When choosing products, pay attention to the packaging: labeling "non-comedogenic" is mandatory. Calmness and confidence will be added by masking therapeutic agents with pigmented particles that even out skin tone.
The question "what will help from acne" is not a definite answer. It is difficult to single out the main “anti-acne” components: good treatments contain a complex combination of active substances. And yet there are ingredients that are better to remember (and check, if necessary, yourself and your specialist):
Pharmacy brands undergo careful monitoring under the supervision of dermatologists and are prescribed by the doctors themselves, therefore they are more preferable for the care of problem skin.
In addition to proper care and corrective medical treatment, cosmetology rooms are happy to offer a number of procedures to improve the skin condition: necessary and acceptable (for example, facial cleansing - mechanical or ultrasound, various peels) the specialist will choose for consultation, taking into account the condition of the teenager's skin.
Do not make up
Traditional medicine is still a panacea for many of us, and in fairness it should be noted that some herbs do have anti-inflammatory effects (aloe, chamomile, sage, calendula), which can be used for external care.
However, there are also such methods that are categorically not recommended for home practice. So, a mask from laundry soap greatly overdries the skin, on the contrary, contributing to increased excretion of sebum, and the popular celandine is a potent plant that must be used very carefully (it is not for nothing that they remove various skin tumors). Improper acne can also be enhanced by improperly selected general care products (for example, oil formulations), excess ultraviolet radiation (it reduces the skin's own immunity), and an increase in the production of inflammatory mediators (biologically active substances that trigger the painful process). This, by the way, is true for any age.
Alexander Prokofiev - Dermatovenerologist, La Roche-Posay brand expert.
Causes of Acne in Teens
The reasons for the development of acne in adolescents are many:
Genetic predisposition (if the parents had acne, then the risk of the disease is much higher),
· Hormonal disorders in serious diseases such as polycystic ovary and others,
· Temporary changes in the hormonal background (before and during menstruation, androgen levels increase),
Acne may occur due to the use of certain drugs, for example, steroid drugs, antidepressants, tranquilizers, oral contraceptives, etc.,
Improperly selected cosmetics, especially oil-based ones, can have a negative effect on the skin, since oil clogs skin pores,
· Constant cleaning of the skin with soap, leading to its drying out and excessive activation of the sebaceous glands,
· Stress can provoke the appearance of acne in a teenager, again leading to a change in hormonal levels.
One of the side factors for the development of acne in a teenager is the state of the environment: too humid or too dry air and gas contamination also negatively affect the condition of the skin.
Teenage acne on face and body
Usually teenage acne is concentrated on the face, as well as on the chest and back. The forehead, nose and chin are most affected on the face. This is due to the excessive work of the sebaceous glands, which are concentrated in the greatest amount in these places. Through the hair follicles, sebum comes out, moisturizing the skin. However, if there is too much of it, then lumps are formed that stick together with keratinized particles of skin and bacteria (rapidly multiplying under such favorable conditions), form a comedone inside the follicle - a solid cork. When a comedone is formed, the follicle breaks through, pus, bacteria get into the surrounding tissues, the inflammatory process begins. With extensive inflammation, the epithelium is replaced by connective tissue and a scar forms at the site of the acne.
Teen acne is classified by external signs. Classification is necessary for more accurate diagnosis and the appointment of appropriate treatment.
Classification of teenage acne:
Papules - small red acne, often painful to the touch,
Pustules - acne filled with pus, the base is red,
· Nodules - large enough painful formations located deep in the skin,
· Cysts - large deep formations filled with pus, scars often remain from them.
The most problematic treatments are nodules and cysts.
Teen Acne Treatment
The treatment of teenage acne is a long and difficult process. The choice of drugs for the treatment of teenage acne is determined by the clinical picture of the disease: the degree and nature of the rash, the state of the teenager. It should be borne in mind that the use of only cosmetic products does not lead to getting rid of acne.
In order to start treatment for teenage acne, you need to consider:
· The number and place of rashes,
· Level and speed of sebum secretion,
The severity of acne inflammation,
· Are there any complications and what is their degree (age spots, scars),
· The psychological state of a teenager with acne (are there signs of depression, self-doubt, isolation, etc.),
· Are there any concomitant diseases.
In order for treatment of teenage acne to be successful, it is necessary to reduce the production of sebum, remove dead skin cells and destroy pathogens. Depending on the severity of teenage acne, therapy is used:
· Antibacterial drugs (external and systemic)
· Means that eliminate follicular hyperkeratosis
External treatments for teenage acne are prescribed to all patients, regardless of the severity of acne. Systemic drugs, which are usually available in the form of tablets and capsules, are indicated for adolescents only with moderate to severe acne, or in the presence of scars and ineffective local treatment.
To prevent the formation of new comedones, cosmetic products for problem skin care and a diet are recommended. Gels and creams containing antibiotics and comedolytics can be used to treat existing acne in adolescents. Topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide and other antimicrobials, azelaic and salicylic acids show high effectiveness in treating teenage acne. Medicines for external use are applied several times a day to pre-cleansed skin. Acne treatment in adolescents can last up to a year.
Systemic treatment of teenage acne is indicated only for moderate or severe acne, or in the absence of the effect of using external funds. For the systemic treatment of teenage acne, the following groups of drugs are used:
Hormone medications (COCs)
Antibiotics are the main group of drugs used for moderate and severe acne in adolescents. In the vast majority of cases, tetracycline antibiotics are used to treat teenage acne.Until recently, doxycycline was the most common drug of this group, however, it was characterized by pronounced phototoxicity, which limits the possibility of its use in the summer.
Currently, a worthy alternative has appeared in the arsenal of dermatologists - the drug is a group of tetracycline antibiotics that have an even more pronounced antibacterial effect against the pathogen of acne, and at the same time can be used at any time of the year. In clinical studies, it is confirmed that a 6-week course of taking antibiotics provides a halving of the number of inflammatory elements.
If treatment of teenage acne with antibiotics for various reasons still did not show the desired effect, it is recommended that systemic retinoids be prescribed. Drugs in this group are prescribed for adolescents with acne to slow down the formation of sebum and horn plugs. In addition, systemic retinoids have a direct anti-inflammatory effect, which accelerates the healing of teenage acne.
In girls, hormonal therapy with oral contraceptives is possible, aimed at reducing the level of androgen.
Acne in young men sometimes proceeds in a severe form, which is called transient acne. It is characterized by a strong inflammatory process, nodules form, after which noticeable scars remain. Corticosteroids may be used to treat acne in young men, but this method is extremely rare.
Teenage acne for teens is a serious test, often leading to the development of psychological complexes, isolation, serious depression. Therefore, one of the components of the treatment of teenage acne should be the help of a psychologist.
Prevention of juvenile acne
Teenage acne can sometimes be successfully prevented with the help of simple preventive measures (or at least mitigate the manifestations of the disease):
· Gentle cleansing of problem areas of the skin several times a day,
· Diet and normalization of lifestyle (lean meat, fish, vegetables and fruits, quitting smoking, alcohol, etc.),
· The use of well-chosen cosmetics, including the rejection of oil-based products.
Causes of Acne in Adolescence
The causes of acne in adolescents lie in the systemic restructuring of the body, which begins when the child reaches puberty. The main one is a genetic predisposition. If your parents had problems with a person in their teens, then you most likely will have them.
Elena Malysheva, a well-known TV presenter of the health program, calls the "hormonal storm" the main prerequisite for the appearance of acne. Restructuring of hormones in turn leads to the following factors affecting the appearance of acne:
- enhanced synthesis of sebaceous glands and increased keratinization of the epidermis, which generally clogs the pores,
- an increase in the frequency of pathogenic inflammatory processes on the face and body.
The development of the disease in young men is even more aggravated by an increased level of testosterone, because of which 2 of the above factors are felt much stronger.
Additional causes of acne in adolescents occupy a maximum of 20% of the total mass:
- Stress, emotional overload, complexes,
- The constant use of salty, fried and fatty foods,
- Addiction to fast food, smoked meats, sweets, especially chocolate,
- Excess coffee
- Failure to observe the rules of facial hygiene
- Unsuitable care products
- Excessive use of makeup
- Lack of vitamins
- Long-term drug therapy
- Diseases of infectious etiology,
- Any type of diabetes
- Ecological impact - high humidity, high level of air pollution,
- Mechanical irritation - skin rubbing with hands, tight collars, synthetic tight-fitting clothing.
Symptoms and signs: photo
The main symptoms of acne at a young age is a change in the skin. Rashes of various shapes and structures appear on the face, less often the back and chest.
- Closed comedones. They are formed during the accumulation of skin secretion deep in the pores, when the fat does not have the ability to go outside. The mass becomes denser, it becomes more and more, and a tubercle with a white dot in the center forms on the skin,
- Black dots (open comedones). Appear when thickened lard comes to the surface of the skin and dust and dirt particles get into it,
- Acne They occur when an infection gets from the outside into the layers of the epidermis and pathogenic bacteria become active. They are characterized by redness of the skin around the follicle, the appearance of an abscess, soreness when touched.
The photo above shows how acne can look unattractive in adolescents, how terrible acne on the face spoils the overall appearance of a person. That is why it is very important to timely treat the disease, under the strict guidance of a competent doctor.
The main tasks that are solved in the treatment of juvenile acne:
- Softening comedones and completely eliminating excess secretions,
- Liquefaction of subcutaneous fat
- Stabilization of the sebaceous and sweat glands,
- Suppression of the activity of pathogens,
- Preventing the appearance of acne.
Effective treatment of acne in adolescents is possible using a set of methods, as well as subject to a number of rules:
- Timely visit to a dermatologist and narrow specialists according to his recommendations. Sometimes acne is a consequence of somatic diseases, and standard methods of treatment will not work,
- An exception to attempts to squeeze acne. A mechanical effect on acne rashes aggravates pathological processes and can cause sepsis or complications. The likelihood of scarring and scars also increases.
- The use of products intended for skin with acne. Gels, soap, foams containing aggressive antiseptics, alkali or alcohol exacerbate the situation. Effective use of cosmetics based on oils (shea, argan, hemp).
- Refusal of scrubs. Intensive mechanical stress irritates the epidermis and causes inflammation. Particles - carriers of infection, respectively, the use of scrub can trigger the formation of ulcers,
- The choice of one remedy. In the desire to quickly get rid of blackheads, teens often use all products intended for the treatment of acne at once. The result is the progression of the disease, it is important to focus on one drug recommended by the doctor,
- Taking prescription drugs is strictly according to the treatment regimen. Violations of the therapeutic course nullify the results already obtained, moreover, excessive “enthusiasm” with prescribed drugs negatively affects the skin,
- Complete treatment. It happens that after the onset of the first improvements, boys and girls refuse to continue therapy. This should not be allowed - untreated acne will begin to recur very soon.
The duration of treatment for juvenile acne is 2-3 months, sometimes it can last up to a year (in especially difficult situations).
Drug therapy for acne in adolescents depends on the severity of the disease, the form of rashes, causes. A dermatologist can prescribe external drugs, either separately or in combination with tablets for oral administration, to enhance the therapeutic effect.
As for the form of the drug, then everything is purely individual and depends not only on the degree of neglect of the disease, but also on the individual reactions of a particular teenager.
Creams, ointments and lotions
Local pharmaceuticals prescribed for adolescents include ointments and lotions containing antibiotics, pore softening agents and complex creams, which contain both active ingredients.
The therapeutic course can last up to a year. All medicines must be applied to the skin several times a day, strictly after washing. Possible side effects:
- Sensitivity to the sun
- Feeling of dryness
- Redness of certain areas of the skin.
The following medical acne cosmetics have proven themselves in the best way:
- Zinerite. Eliminates inflammation and excess fat due to erythromycin and zinc in the composition,
- Dalacin-T. Cleans pores, dries the surface of the epidermis, nullifies the inflammatory process,
- Skinoren. Reduces the secretion of fat, reduces the growth of cells that block pores. The active ingredient is azelaic acid,
- The range of medical cosmetics Propeller. It provides skin care for acne-affected skin. Relieves inflammation, cleanses the skin. Active substances: zinc, zincidone, panthenol, acids, vegetable extracts,
- Salicylic, retinoic and zinc ointments. Reduce the activity of microbes and relieve excess sebum.
In the treatment of teenage acne, it is effective to use oral tablets containing:
- Antibiotics. As part of doxycycline, erythromycin, tetracycline. Therapy with these drugs is prescribed for severe illness or moderate acne. Side effects are possible - allergies, digestive upsets, vaginal candidiasis, discoloration of tooth enamel,
- Retinoids. They are prescribed in exceptional cases with a diagnosed 4 degree of acne. Roaccutane and its analogues normalize the activity of the sebaceous glands and fight infection from the inside. Taking the drug is possible strictly according to the scheme due to serious side effects.
Topical topical supplements can be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of juvenile acne, however, the main purpose of herbal remedies in the treatment of acne in adolescents is to saturate the body with mineral and vitamin complexes in case of their shortage. Supplements enhance the effectiveness of the main treatment and can eliminate minor inflammations.
Dermatologists recommend that young men and women suffering from acne rash, Aknelocin. The supplement formula contains important components: zinc, retinol, riboflavin, manuka extract, aloe, tea tree, sparulina, chlorella.
The complex effect of the active components is aimed at:
- Reduction of inflammation,
- Eliminating the elements of acne and post-acne,
- Improved blood circulation,
- Acceleration of skin regeneration.
The visible result is guaranteed by the manufacturer after 10 days.
Folk remedies for teenage acne
Traditional medicine recipes are good for mild acne. In adolescence, acne of 3-4 degrees is treated only under the supervision of a specialist dermatologist.
Home-made drugs are used as lotions and compresses. Products and infusions should be drunk to cleanse the body from the inside. A separate item is natural oils, as effective means of combating the disease.
A variety of folk remedies includes herbal medicine and food-based recipes. Among them:
- Herbal tea made from raspberries. Grind and mix leaves and flowers, pour a cup of boiling water, insist for half an hour. To wash with broth in the morning and in the evening,
- Infusion of chamomile and calendula. Mix the flowers of the plants, take 2 tablespoons. Pour a liter of boiling water. Leave on for 40 minutes. The usage pattern is similar to the previous recipe,
- Sage broth with honey. 1.5 tablespoons of sage boil in 200 ml of water. After boiling, wait half an hour. Strain and pour a teaspoon of liquid honey. Lotions apply twice a day to skin areas affected by acne,
- Cucumber lotion. Peel and finely chop 2 cucumbers, put in a glass container, pour a glass of vodka. Leave at room temperature for 2 weeks. Wipe the skin 2 times a day.
Refusing to visit a dermatologist is the first mistake
Acne treatment involves the use of a wide variety of medications - both taken orally (orally), and with the condition of applying them to the skin (local treatment), and cosmetic and physiotherapeutic procedures can also be prescribed as part of the therapy. A specific choice is made on an individual basis - you cannot derive any single algorithm for treating acne and acne.
The fact is that the causes of acne in all people are different - someone has a dermatological disease (it can be, for example, rosacea), someone has a history of chronic pathology of internal organs: such conditions require careful diagnosis, follow-up and quite a long treatment. And if in the case of the presence of some diseases in the body, a person will regularly use skin care products, make masks and even visit beauty parlors, then the acne will definitely not disappear. Rather, it will disappear, but this will be a short-term effect.
Making an appointment with a dermatologist (a doctor who studies and treats skin diseases) is necessary immediately as soon as painful skin rashes appear and no generally accepted means improve the skin condition. Only a specialist can give an objective assessment of the skin condition and general health, select an individual therapy regimen and, if necessary, refer the patient to additional examinations.
Squeezing / damaging blackheads - second mistake
There is hardly a person who, with the appearance of acne, will not seek to get rid of acne faster! And now, hands themselves stretch out to hateful acne - squeeze faster, get rid of them ... But specialists are absolutely unanimous in their opinion - such actions (squeezing, piercing acne) will not only not accelerate the healing process, but can also aggravate the problem. Quite often, after squeezing acne in people, inflammatory processes on the skin worsen, and this can provoke the formation of rough scars or even the development of sepsis.
People who have acne should categorically refrain from squeezing or damaging acne. Such procedures should be carried out only by a specialist - a cosmetologist or a dermatologist, who will first assess the condition of the skin, conduct an examination of the entire body and only then make the right decision.
Choosing the wrong cosmetics - the third mistake
Acne (acne) is usually inherent in people who have oily or combination skin types. A common mistake of such people is the use of cosmetics based on alcohol, strong antiseptics, or alkaline soaps. Dermatologists strongly recommend that when choosing a cosmetic product, pay attention to the label - it should indicate that the product can be used on skin prone to acne (some manufacturers label such products as "non-comedogenic").
The same rule applies to the choice of skin care products: they will not clog the skin pores, which will prevent their inflammation, expansion, which results in acne.
Beauticians and dermatologists strongly advise against using any cosmetics that include:
- acetylated lanolin,
- decyl oleate
- myristyl myristate
- isopropyl palmitate,
- cacao butter,
- isopropyl isostearate,
- D / C pigments in red,
- isostearyl neopentanoate,
- butyl stearate,
- isopropyl myristate
- isoacetyl stearate.
To use skin care products made on the basis of natural oils, it is also necessary to competently - dermatologists recommend choosing only those products whose list of components includes “light” oils:
- rose hips.
The listed natural oils are absolutely safe and can be used to care for any type of skin.There is another series of natural oils - moderately gummedogenic, that is, they must be used with caution; before use, test on a small area of the skin and make sure that existing acne / acne has not inflamed. The following oils belong to this series:
- grape seed
The choice of any skin care products, as well as decorative cosmetics should be based on the search for products marked “non-comedogenic”.
Using scrubs - fourth mistake
Those who are faced with acne or acne, believe that their problem started from dirt, and begin to actively clean their face with scrubs, gels and foams. Yes, dermatologists claim that contamination of the skin may well provoke the appearance of the problem in question, but at the same time, active care for a clean face in all cases causes irritation of the skin, and inflammation will be the answer to such “aggression”.
In addition, scrubs in their composition have small grains of sand that can damage the abscess, spread the infection over the skin - you can confidently 100% expect the appearance of acne in new places. Thus, a single pimple can lead to a mass of pustules!
Experts argue that the use of scrubs and any other aggressive cleansing preparations during exacerbation of acne is strictly unacceptable. Even if a person uses ordinary foam / gel when washing, these products should be thoroughly washed off the skin - if left, they can provoke the development of inflammation on the skin. The use of scrubs is only possible during persistent remission, the consultation with a dermatologist will be the best option.
The simultaneous use of many therapeutic agents is the fifth mistake
Naturally, a person tries to quickly get rid of acne, and begins to use all medicines at once - “something should help!”. But the result will not be recovery, but deterioration of the skin - a “cocktail” of several drugs causes irritation, the disease will only progress.
Self-medication generally leads to aggravation of acne, which is why doctors immediately warn their patients that it is not worth waiting for any instant results, but using only prescribed medications is a prerequisite. An illiterate course of therapy can lead to the formation of scars and scars - even the best dermatologists will not be able to cope with them, this is already a paraphy of plastic surgeons.
Stopping treatment after the first results - sixth mistake
What does a person do when treating acne? As soon as the number of rashes has decreased, and the skin has acquired a healthy appearance, the use of any prescribed medications is stopped - "why poison the body." Here it is - the main mistake! The fact is that a sharp abolition of the drug used to treat acne will certainly lead to a relapse of the problem after 4-6 weeks and the course of treatment will have to be taken from the very beginning. But if the withdrawal of the drug is gradual (for example, at the beginning of treatment, the agent was applied to the skin 2 times a day, with a visible recovery - 1 time per day), then the acne will either completely “leave” the face or enter a long-term remission.
And one more nuance: many patients stop using prescribed medications when the first side effects appear - for example, excessive dry skin, a feeling of tightness and even an aggravation of the process may appear at the beginning of therapy. You should know that in most cases such phenomena are the norm, the course of treatment for acne is 6-12 weeks, so you just need to consult a dermatologist, but in no case interrupt treatment.
Acne treatment is a work that must be competent and under the supervision of a specialist. Only in this case it will be possible to get rid of hated acne and restore health to the skin.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical observer, therapist of the highest qualification category
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Decoctions and infusions for oral administration
A part of home herbal remedies is much more effective if the treatment of acne on the face of a teenager is not carried out locally, but by taking decoctions inside, according to a certain scheme. A good result is shown:
- A decoction of dandelion roots. A tablespoon of the dry parts of the plant needs to be poured with 250 ml of hot water. Boil for 15 minutes over low heat and cool. Drink 1/3 cup three times a day before meals,
- Infusion of violets. 2 teaspoons of raw materials are poured with 3 cups of boiling water. The tool is infused for 2 hours and consumed in ½ cup 3 times a day before meals,
- Infusion spool. 1.5 dessert spoon pour 200 ml of boiling water. Leave for 1 hour. Drink during the day, dividing into 4-5 receptions,
- A decoction of nettle leaves. Prepared from 2 glasses of boiling water and 2 tablespoons of leaves. Insist 2-3 hours. Drink 100 ml before meals.
Despite the fact that cosmetic oils are considered quite fatty care products, some of them effectively cope with acne and acne.
Coconut oil is most commonly used. Recipes based on it:
- Melt 50 g of dark chocolate and mix with coconut oil in the amount of 1 tablespoon. Apply for 5 minutes. Rinse off with warm water. Apply once every 3 days for 2 weeks,
- Crush persimmon pulp in mashed potatoes. Add to it an egg yolk and 1 teaspoon of oil, corn starch and honey. Keep the mixture on your face for 15 minutes, rinse with water at room temperature. After the procedure, soften the skin with chamomile infusion.
In second place is calendula oil. Based on it, a hot mask is prepared to cope with various forms of acne. You can do it as follows:
- Warm a tissue napkin by lowering it in hot water,
- Apply 25 drops of marigold oil evenly,
- Put on your face for half an hour and cover with a towel,
- Wash with warm water.
Vitamins and Diet
In adolescence, the prerequisites for the formation of comedones and papules are often rooted in a lack of vitamins and an unhealthy diet.
The body of high school students is subjected to increased physical, mental and emotional stress, so it is important to maintain the necessary level of substances:
- Vitamin A. Regulates the natural moisture balance and the production of skin secretion,
- Vitamin E. Cleans,
- Vitamins of group B. Protect the skin from aggressive environmental influences,
- Vitamin C. Reduces irritation and reduces inflammation.
Doctors recommend using it to treat acne:
- Aevit. Restores the protective functions of the dermis and replenishes the lack of vitamins A and E,
- Magne B The composition contains magnesium and vitamins of group B. It positively affects the emotional state, reduces the effects of stress,
- Vitamin C. Suppresses the activity of infectious agents that provoke inflammatory processes.
Drugs will give the desired result only on condition of course administration. Also, for the treatment of acne, you can resort to combined vitamin complexes. Among them:
Proper diet plays an important role in getting rid of youthful acne. Food should be fractional and exclude snacks. The basis of the diet:
- Low-fat fish,
- Lean meat,
- Dairy products,
- Fresh vegetables and fruits,
You should completely abandon:
- Fast food and snacks,
- Muffin and sweets,
- Coffee and power engineers,
- Semi-finished products,
- Fatty meat
- Spicy and salty foods,
- Rice and semolina,
Effective treatment: scheme
The treatment regimen used to treat teenage acne includes a set of measures designed to effectively combat the disease. These include:
- Switch to diet
- Introduction to the diet of foods containing vitamins A and E,
- Refusal of cosmetics based on lanolin and paraffin,
- The use of local products based on zinc or retinoids,
- Antibiotic therapy in the presence of papules and abscesses.
Compliance with these rules will help to quickly get rid of the manifestations of the disease, which is especially painful during adolescence due to the loss of external attractiveness.