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The design work of the student 8 - B - class "Doping in children and youth sports"

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The article discusses the problem of using athletes of various doping and prohibited steroids to improve athletic performance. The authors analyzed legal documents of the international level and Russian legislation, determined the role of WADA in the development of anti-doping information and educational programs for the young generation of athletes. In the work, the authors identified pedagogical and organizational issues of the problem of combating doping in sport. The authors have developed anti-doping measures, which are recommended for use in the system of children and youth sports education and in universities of physical education.

Doping control and liability for the use of doping in sport

The article considers the problem of use by athletes of the different, performance enhancing drugs and banned anabolic steroids to enhance the athletic performance. The authors have analyzed the legal documents of the international level and the Russian legislation, the role of WADA in the development of the anti-doping information and education programs for the young generation of athletes. The authors identified the pedagogical and organizational issues of the fight against doping in sport. The authors have developed anti-doping activities that are recommended for use in the system of youth sports and education in the universities of physical culture.

The text of the scientific work on the topic "Pedagogical and organizational issues of the fight against doping in sport"

6. Gurfinkel, V.S. Regulation of human posture / V.S. Gurfinkel, Y.M. Kots, M.L. Chic. -Moscow: Nauka, 1965 .-- 32 p.

7. The Effect of player grip on the dynamic behavior of a tennis racket / D. Chadefaux, G. Rao, J.L. LeCarrou et al. // Journal of Sports Sciences. - 2017. - No. 35 (12). - P. 1155-1164.

8. Tennis racket grip size on grip force during a simulated tennis match play / J. Rossi, M.J. Fois-sac, L. Vigouroux et al. // Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. - 2009. - No. 12 (S1). - R. 219-220.

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2. Ivanova, G.P. (2017), Biomechanics of the chosen sport: manual, Lesgaft University, St. Petersburg.

3. Ivanova, G.P., Bilenko, A.G. and Gui, Yu. (2016), "Law enforcement agency of the successful fellow of a racket of the qualified tennis player / G.P. Ivanova", Works of department of biomechanics of the University of P.F. Lesgaft, St. Petersburg, pp. 11-16.

4. Ivanova, G.P., Bilenko, A.G. and Gui, Yu. (2016), "Variability of characteristics of development of effort in the successful fellow", Olympic sport and sport for all. XX International scientific congress, on December 16-18, 2016, St. Petersburg, Russia: materials of the congress: in 2 part, Publishing house of the Polytechnical university, St. Petersburg, Part 2, pp. 450-453.

5. Vysochin, Yu.V. (2011), Mio-relaxation in mechanisms of injuries of muscles during fast run: monograph, The Higher school of technology and power, St. Petersburg.

6. Gurfinkel, V.S., Kots Ya.M. and Shik, M.L. (1965), Regulation of a pose of the person, Science, Moscow.

7. Chadefaux, D., Rao, G., LeCarrou, J.L. and et al. (2017), "Effect of player grip on the dynamic behavior of a tennis racket", Journal of Sports Sciences, No. 35 (12), pp. 1155-1164.

8. Rossi, J., Foissac, M.J., Vigouroux, L. and et al. (2009), "Tennis racket grip size on grip force during a simulated tennis match play", Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, No. 12 (S1), pp. 219-220.

Contact information: [email protected]

The article was received on January 10, 2018.

PEDAGOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS OF THE FIGHT AGAINST

DOPING IN SPORT

Lyudmila Aleksandrovna Kiryanova, candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor, Lada Vladimirovna Morozova, associate professor, North-West Institute of Management, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, St. Petersburg, Igor Dmitriev, candidate of pedagogy

Sci., Associate Professor, National State University of Physical Culture, Sports and Health named after P.F. Lesgaft, St. Petersburg (NSU named after PF Lesgaft, St. Petersburg), Alina Valentinovna Fedorova, candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor, St. Petersburg State University of Economics, St. Petersburg, Olesya Valerievna Demidenko, candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor, St. Petersburg State Institute of Cinema and Television, St. Petersburg

The article discusses the problem of using athletes of various doping and prohibited steroids to improve athletic performance. The authors analyzed legal documents of the international level and Russian legislation, determined the role of WADA in the development of anti-doping information and educational programs for the young generation of athletes. In the work, the authors identified pedagogical and organizational issues of the problem of combating doping in sport. The authors have developed anti-doping measures that

Recommended for use in the system of youth sports education and in universities of physical education.

Keywords: doping test, anabolics, pharmacology, loads, recovery, disqualification, criminal punishment, sanctions, state program.

DOPING CONTROL AND LIABILITY FOR THE USE OF DOPING IN SPORT

Lyudmila Aleksandrovna Kiryanova, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer, Lada Vladimirovna Morozova, senior lecturer, North-West Institute of Management, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, St-Petersburg, Igor Viktorovich Dmitriev , the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer, The Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education, Sport and Health, St. Petersburg, Alina Valentinovna Fedorova, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer, State Economic University, St. Petersburg, Olesya Valeryevna Demidenko, the candidate ofpedagogical sciences, senior lecturer, State University of Cinema and Television,

The article considers the problem of use by athletes of the different, performance enhancing drugs and banned anabolic steroids to enhance the athletic performance. The authors have analyzed the legal documents of the international level and the Russian legislation, the role of WADA in the development of the anti-doping information and education programs for the young generation of athletes. The authors identified the pedagogical and organizational issues of the fight against doping in sport. The authors have developed anti-doping activities that are recommended for use in the system of youth sports and education in the universities of physical culture.

Keywords: doping test, anabolic, pharmacology, stress, recovery, disqualification, criminal punishment, sanctions, state program.

The most important and very painful problem of Russian and world sports is the use of unauthorized drugs and the fight against them. This is an unpleasant fact of modern sport. The legislation of the Russian Federation and the decisions of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) prohibits the use by athletes of substances and methods that help improve physical strength and endurance and increase performance, but despite this, the doping infection continues to infect more and more sports every year.

Increasing the tension of competitive battles, excessive loads and requirements, systematically bring athletes to the limit of their physical capabilities. As a result, ambitious athletes striving for records often need an additional source of energy. And they find this source of energy in the use of doping. Prolonged doping leads to a loss of stability of the result, and therefore an increase in dose is required. The latter circumstance makes them related to drugs.

This disease spreads all over the world. The deteriorating situation in sports has contributed to the formation of structures aimed at combating doping. This is the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), Regional Anti-Doping Organization (RADO) of Eastern Europe, RUSADA (Russian). The functions of these organizations include the development of doping control, i.e. checks to help identify facts on the use of prohibited drugs and medicines in the training and competitive periods. The sports industry began to actively cooperate with large research institutes.

The purpose of the study is to substantiate, on the basis of theoretical analysis, the feasibility of improving Russian legislation and anti-doping education to counteract the use of illegal drugs in sports.

To solve this problem, we set a number of tasks:

• analyze legal documents of the international level and Russian legislation,

• reveal the essential characteristic of the concept of "doping",

• determine the role of WADA in the development of anti-doping information and educational programs for the young generation of athletes,

• analyze the methods of struggle to counteract the use of illicit drugs in sports.

RESEARCH METHODS AND ORGANIZATION

Doping was not the discovery of the twentieth century. They began to resort to stimulant drugs simultaneously with competitions and the development of sports in general. A huge desire to win against an opponent and become a winner at all costs, and even at the cost of one's own health, is the essence of human nature. "Doping" in translation from English - "to give drugs." Almost until the 20s of the last century, cocaine and heroin were the first serious doping, as they were not prohibited by law.

So, doping is the introduction or use by athletes of different types of pharmacological drugs or methods that increase the body's performance.

The use of doping drugs in sports that cause a short stimulating effect was first noted in the 19th century. However, attitudes towards stimulants have changed significantly in recent decades. The relevance of the problem in national federations (cycling, athletics, etc.) has dramatically changed after the tragic incidents with famous athletes.

Doping control in sports appeared since 1968 (from the Olympics in Mexico City). And at the Sydney Olympics in 2000, the Olympic oath for the first time included a promise not to use doping.

Most sports experts note that it is very difficult for athletes experiencing significant stress and a high intensity of the training cycle to recover without the use of pharmacology.

Among many athletes, coaches and sports officials, a stable stereotype of the admissibility of doping to improve results has formed (55% of respondents). This conviction only complicates the possibilities of combating this harmful phenomenon in sport 8, p. 112.

The former IOC President Jacques Rogge was skeptical about the prospects for solving the doping problem. He believed that the problem of doping in sports could not be eradicated. Doping is a peculiar form of crime in sports that society cannot get rid of. In this regard, the doping control system will always exist and improve.

Anti-doping legislation is being continuously improved and liability measures are being tightened. However, despite all the efforts made, the methods of avoiding liability are being improved. The IOC Medical Commission has identified a number of prohibited stimulants. This list is constantly updated with the latest drugs, and for their use should be immediately disqualified - often for several years, and even for life, but the victory over this evil is very distant.

Previously, doping control was carried out at international and responsible domestic competitions, and only highly qualified athletes were tested. Today, control is carried out at different stages of sports training.

Many drugs recognized as doping in sports are effective medicines in everyday life and are not prohibited by law. As a result of this, the fight against doping is carried out not by law enforcement agencies of the state, but by authorized sports organizations that have public and private

status. All such organizations have supervisory and procedural powers.

On November 16, 1989 in Strasbourg, members of the Council of Europe and other states signed the Convention against doping BT8 No. 135. This is a necessary measure, because the free use of doping drugs adversely affected the health of athletes and the sport in general. An important event related to the changes in the fight against doping was the adoption by the General Conference of UNESCO at the 33rd session in Paris on October 19, 2005. International Convention against Doping in Sport. The signatories to the Convention have done so with the aim of protecting health, moral and physical education. It proposed practical measures of the following nature:

• Government agencies are required to adopt legislation restricting the availability of doping, transportation, storage, import, distribution and sale, as well as the use of doping in sports.

• States undertake to establish anti-doping control laboratories within their territory, hosted by competent international sports organizations. The management of the laboratories carries out the recruitment and placement, training and retraining of specialists, implements appropriate research and development programs on prohibited substances and on the doping methods used in sports, for an objective idea of ​​their effect on the body and on sports results. Laboratories timely publish data obtained as a result of research.

• The imposition of sanctions, procedures for temporary disqualification and other measures against leaders, doctors, coaches, physiotherapists and other supporters of violations of WADA anti-doping rules by athletes.

• A list with a list and changes in the pharmacological classes of doping agents and methods prohibited by competent international sports organizations, WADA claims.

The prohibited list is published annually and new versions of the standards are released:

• International standard for laboratories,

• International standard for testing,

• International standard for therapeutic exceptions.

In 2003, WADA specialists developed supporting acts:

• A guide for athletes on a program outside of competitive testing.

• A memo to help athletes and coaches with anti-doping rules.

Upon a statement to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, any state has the right to extend the application of the Convention to a specific declared territory. And then on the first day of the month starting after one month after the date of receipt of the application by the Secretary-General, the Convention enters into force.

In Russia, the state policy to counteract the use of doping agents and methods is concentrated on strict control, on determining liability and eliminating offenses in sports. Over the past few years, in our country, various programs have been implemented that are focused on the fight against doping. Coordination of measures to counteract the use of doping agents and methods is carried out by the Federal executive body in the field of physical education and sports, as well as other federal executive bodies within the framework of the powers granted to them by the Government of the Russian Federation.

These measures include:

• doping control during competitions of international and national level,

• determination of responsibility for the use, promotion and use of doping drugs,

• responsibility for the falsification of drugs and food additives by including doping agents in their composition and for activities aimed at disseminating information about the methods, methods of development, manufacture, use and places of acquisition of doping agents and methods,

• advanced training of specialists in the field of doping control,

• development of a lecture course on the dangers of doping and their introduction into the curriculum of educational institutions, sports schools and schools of the Olympic reserve, as well as anti-doping propaganda in the media,

• support at the highest level of scientific research developing innovative methods of doping control,

• observance of their duties by sports organizations, athletes, coaches, doctors and other specialists, and their responsibility for violating the rules of doping control.

In coordination with the Olympic Committee of Russia and the Ministry of Health of Russia, the Ministry of Sports, in 2002 a Committee was formed to develop and implement an anti-doping policy in sports. The purpose of the Committee is to develop mechanisms to counter the use of substances and methods prohibited by the IOC Medical Commission and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in sports practice at the state level.

Additionally, in order to improve and regulate acts on the organization of doping control, by order of the State Sports Committee of the Russian Federation of October 20, 2003 No. 837, the Regulation on the organization and conduct of anti-doping control in the field of physical education and sports in the Russian Federation was ratified.

The process of preparing for competitions today takes a lot of time and usually contains two or three times a day, however, free time is not enough for rest and full recovery of physical performance. In no area of ​​human activity, the intensity of physical activity does not reach such a prohibitive level as in sports. And, undoubtedly, the human body needs medical support.

It is not at all surprising that an indispensable part of sports science is the development of methods and achievements in the medical and pharmacological industry that improve athletic performance and the rehabilitation of athletes. It is sports science that seeks to optimize the body's strengths and abilities, significantly exceeding the average person.The additional complexity in the question of what is considered the “norm” is created by the rapidly developing technologies of a “healthy lifestyle” associated with nutrition and nutritional supplements. It’s crucial to draw the right line between food supplement and dope.

The purpose of the anti-doping ban is the participation in the competition of bona fide and “pure” athletes who are ready to compete on equal terms with the same bona fide athletes. Similarly, the most favored nation treatment is provided for conscientious athletes.

The essence of doping control is to collect and study biological tests to detect unauthorized substances in the body and to state the use of prohibited methods of sports preparation for competitions. The organization and conduct of sampling was entrusted to the anti-doping control department of the Department of Biomedical and Scientific-Methodological Support of the State Center for Sports Training of the Ministry of Sports. Only the employees of the ADC department (at least two people), owning a certificate of an anti-doping control specialist, can carry out sampling, coding and transportation of samples. Then, everything is delivered to an anti-doping laboratory accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) - State Enterprise "Anti-Doping Center" (GP ADC) for analysis.

When disclosing the fact of doping, the athlete disqualifies himself. For the first time, a convicted athlete in the use of prohibited substances (except for sympathomimetic drugs such as ephedrine) is disqualified for 2 years, with a second - for life. The coach and the doctor who looked after the athlete are also punished.

Of course, every use as a dope of drugs officially classified as narcotic is punished, both administrative and criminal.

According to Art. 109, 118, 125, 228, 230, 233 - 236, 237, 238 and other articles of the current Criminal Code of the Russian Federation of June 13, 1996 No. 2 63-FZ and Art. 6.2, 6.8, 6.9, 6.18, 3.15, 14.15 and other articles of the current Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses of December 30, 2001 No. 195-FZ establish liability measures in the field of doping tools and methods for coercion to use them, propaganda of their application , for the falsification of drugs and food additives by including doping agents in their composition and their implementation, activities aimed at disseminating information about the methods, methods of development, manufacture, use and places of acquisition are established.

In particular, in accordance with Art. 6.18. item 1. Violation by the trainer, sports medicine specialist or other specialist in the field of physical culture and sports of the requirements for the prevention of doping in sports and the fight against it, expressed in the use of a prohibited substance and / or prohibited method for an athlete, regardless of consent, or in facilitating the use by an athlete or against an athlete of a prohibited substance and (or) a prohibited method, if these actions do not contain a criminal offense, shall entail disqualification for a period of one year to two wow years.

The spread of doping around the world forces the federations in various sports to resort to amending labor contracts with athletes. The main clause of the employment contract is the clause on doubling the doping tests (from the previous 125 to 250 times). It is also stipulated in the contract that the employees of the ADK department can take samples at any time without prior approval from the athlete.

In Russia, all labor contracts with athletes are concluded on certain conditions:

- adherence to all-Russian and international anti-doping rules,

- upon request, the relevant authorities, the passage of doping control,

- informing about your location at any time of the day,

- Providing the employer with medical and life and health insurance.

In an employment contract with a trainer, an indispensable condition is: the application of measures to prevent an athlete (s) from violating the Russian anti-doping rules and anti-doping rules approved by international anti-doping organizations, and fixing the violation in writing 1, 2.

In its activities, WADA has taken a course towards the development of anti-doping information and educational programs for the young generation of athletes.

At present, the educational component of the anti-doping policy has not been found. Until now, there is no comprehensive information base on educational programs for further development. In sports colleges, in centers for sports training, in sports schools, anti-doping work with young people is practically reduced to zero.

Soldatenkov F.N. insists on the introduction into the system of youth sports education and in the program of universities of physical education, educational methods of an anti-doping nature. The advantage of this direction is its

accessibility, and is also the least expensive area of ​​anti-doping activities.

Anti-doping education is not only a process of training, upbringing and personality development aimed at creating a system of theoretical and practical knowledge, skills, value orientations, behavior and activities in the spirit of non-doping, but also a responsible attitude towards oneself, respect for the rules of the competition, the opponent , viewers 9, p.19.

The purpose of the anti-doping education is to develop a negative attitude to the violation of anti-doping rules, the formation of an athlete’s inner conviction about the nobility and justice of wrestling 4, p. 8. It is necessary to develop a negative attitude towards the use of doping in the coaching environment, among the leadership and the teaching staff of educational and sports institutions, with the help of systematic theoretical exercises on anti-doping issues. It is also important to provide sports schools, sports schools, centers for sports training with special anti-doping literature, not only for athletes themselves, but also for coaches and physical education teachers. It is important to approach the study of anti-doping issues comprehensively: from a historical, economic, legal and socio-political point of view. Thus, more clearly shaping the civic and moral position 5, p.5.

RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This problem requires further discussion on the issue of improving legislation in the field of physical education and sports and the regulation of the activities of coaches and athletes.

It is necessary to minimize the prevalence of doping, this negative phenomenon, and to combat doping everywhere. The legislative bodies have already made proposals on the introduction of criminal penalties for the use of anabolic steroids without medical indications, or the inclination to take them.

In the Russian Federation, federal programs for the protection and strengthening of public health are funded, measures are taken to develop state, municipal, private health systems, activities that contribute to improving human health, the development of the FCS, environmental and sanitary-epidemiological well-being are encouraged. Health protection is not only the duty of the state, but also the duty of every citizen of the Russian Federation. The legal capacity and the maximum duration of his active life depend on the state of human health. Attitude to one’s health also depends on upbringing in the family, school, university, motivation, self-organization, self-discipline and self-development.

In this regard, the training of professional personnel, future specialists in the field of physical culture and recreation plays a large role. The introduction of the professional educational program "Anti-Doping Legislation in the Field of Physical Culture and Sports" of higher education undergraduate programs in Russian universities is relevant. So, as soon as through training and education in the educational pedagogical process it is possible to form an anti-doping worldview among students and rejection of artificial effects on the body. In their future pedagogical work, specialists in the field of physical education and training should solve the following professional tasks:

in coaching

• contribute to the formation of the personality of students in the process of practicing their chosen sport, its involvement in universal values, a healthy lifestyle, moral principles of fair sports competition,

• to manage the training process on the basis of monitoring the functional state, the achieved level of technology of motor actions and the working capacity of students and making appropriate adjustments to the training

• ensure the timely passage of medical supervision and carry out pedagogical monitoring of the state of students.

In organizational and management activities

• organize and conduct physical education and sports events,

• carry out their professional activities, guided by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the laws of the Russian Federation and regulatory documents of education, physical education and sports, regulatory legal acts in the field of education, physical education and sports,

• comply with the rules and standards of labor protection, safety measures, ensure the protection of life and health of students in the classroom.

Basic knowledge and skills that students of physical education universities should master in the learning process:

• features of the legislation in the field of regulation of sports relations and management activities aimed at the implementation of anti-doping legislation,

• the basics of managing sports organizations, managing sports groups, teams, the basics of creating a moral climate, creating the conditions for fair sports competition,

• analyze and make managerial decisions on the organization of an anti-doping policy in the field of physical education and sports,

• apply the norms of anti-doping legislation in creating a moral climate in sports teams in order to implement the principles of fair sports competition,

• a systematic approach to the implementation of anti-doping legislation in the field of physical education and sports,

• methods of forming a motivational policy aimed at nurturing the moral principles of fair sports competition.

To improve the activities of sports organizations, athletes, coaches, doctors in the fight against doping at different levels, we recommended the main anti-doping measures:

• timely familiarization of athletes and their personnel with the main anti-doping documents in full,

• formation of a system of continuous reporting on anti-doping rules and changes,

• initiative participation of sports federations in various programs in the field of prevention and combating doping,

• anti-doping propaganda among young athletes and staff of athletes of national teams,

• organizing a timely application for authorizing the therapeutic use of prohibited substances and / or methods included in the WADA Prohibited List,

• prevention of anti-doping rule violations since the beginning of a sports career.

An alternative to doping should be allowed means and methods of achieving sportsmanship and high results in competitions. They are as follows:

1. The correct, rational organization of the training process, providing the necessary evidence-based alternation of retracting, developing and leading to the "peak of form" training loads in the presence of a full recovery after them.

2. Targeted physiotherapeutic methods to accelerate recovery after training and competitive loads: massage, balneological methods,

muscle electrostimulation, acupuncture.

3. Special pharmacological agents that provide adaptation to training and competitive loads and are not prohibited for use in sports vitamins, products of high biological value.

Thus, we are talking about the most rational and always individual modes of training and nutrition.

Summing up the results of our work, we can conclude: the use of doping causes irreparable damage to the health of an athlete. The use of doping in sports kills the idea of ​​fair and “clean” competitions, which is the basis of sports and the Olympic movement. It is necessary to actively introduce into the training and competitive processes a policy aimed at fostering the moral principles of fair sports competition, and every athlete, sports doctor, and trainer are aware of the dangers that carry doping.

1. Alekseev, S.V. Olympic law = Olympic law: the legal foundations of the Olympic movement: a textbook for university students enrolled in the areas of 03050 "Jurisprudence" and 032101 "Physical Culture and Sports", scientific specialties 12.00.03, 12.00.10, 12.00.14, 13.00.04 / S.V. Alekseev. - M.: UNITY-DANA: Law and Law, 2010. - 687 p.

2. Alekseev, S.V. Legal basis of professional activity in sports: a textbook for high schools / S.V. Alekseev. - M.: Soviet Sport, 2013 .-- 517 p.

3. Annotation of the work program "Anti-Doping Legislation in the Field of Physical Culture and Sports" Electronic resource // URL: http://lesgaft.spb.ru/sites/default/files/u102/up-load/antidopingovoe_zakonodatelstvo_v_sfere_fkis.pdf. - Date of treatment 01.24.2018.

4. Badrak, K.A. The influence of the experimental anti-doping educational program on the attitude of young people to doping, taking into account socio-pedagogical factors / K.A. Badrak // Adaptive Physical Culture. - 2011. - No. 2. - S. 8-11.

5. Badrak, K.A. Experimental anti-doping educational program and the results of its implementation (for example, young wrestlers) / K.A. Badrak // Paralympic movement in Russia on the way to London: problems and solutions: materials of the All-Russian scientific-practical conference / St. Petersburg. scientific researcher. Institute of Physics culture. - SPb., 2011 .-- S. 5-7.

6. Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses dated December 30, 2001 N 195-ФЗ (as amended on December 31, 2017) Electronic resource // URL: http://www.consultant.ru/docu-ment/cons_doc_LAW_34661. - Date of treatment 01.24.2018.

7. Constitution of the Russian Federation dated 12.12.1993 Electronic resource // URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_28399. - Date of treatment 01.24.2018.

8. Soldatenkov, F.N. The current state of the anti-doping movement and the possibility of its development within the framework of physical education and sports education / F.N. Soldatenkov // Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgaft. - 2010. - No. 2 (60). - S. 112-116.

9. Soldatenkov, F.N. The formation of value orientations of the anti-doping orientation in the educational process of students of the university of physical education: author. dis. . Cand. ped Sciences / Soldatenkov F.N. - Smolensk, 2011 .-- 19 p.

10. The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation of 13.06.1996 N 63-ФЗ (as amended on 12/31/2017) Electronic resource // URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_10699. - Date of treatment 01.24.2018.

11. Federal law "On ratification of the International Convention against Doping in Sport" dated December 27, 2006 N 240-ФЗ Electronic resource // URL: http://www.consultant.ru/docu-ment/cons_doc_LAW_64829. - Date of treatment 01.24.2018.

1. Alekseev, S.V. (2010), Olympic right. The legal basis of the Olympic movement: textbook for universities, YUNITI-DANA: Law and right, Moscow.

2. Alekseev, S.V. (2013), Legal basis of professional activities in sport: textbook for universities, Soviet sport, Moscow.

3. Abstract operational program "Anti-Doping legislation in the sphere of physical culture and sports", available at:

4. Badrak, K.A. (2011), "Effect of experimental anti-doping educational program on the attitudes to doping, taking into account the socio-pedagogical factors", Adaptive physical culture, No. 2, pp. 8-11.

5. Badrak, K.A. (2011), "Experimental anti-doping educational program and results of its implementation (for example, young fighters)", Paralympic movement in Russia on the way to London: problems and solutions: materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference, SPbVNIFK , St. Petersburg, pp. 5-7.

6. Code of the Russian Federation about administrative offences from 12/30/2001 N195-FZ (as amended on 12/31/2017), available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_34661.

7.The Constitution of the Russian Federation from 12.12.1993, available at: http://www.consult-ant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_28399.

8. Soldatenkov, F.N. (2010), "Modern state of the anti-doping movement and its development within the framework of physical culture and sports education", Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgafta, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 112-116.

9. Soldatenkov, F.N. (2010), The formation of value orientations of the anti-doping focus in the educational process of University students of physical culture, dissertation, Smolensk.

10. Criminal code of the Russian Federation from 06/13/1996 N 63-FZ (as amended on 12/31/2017), available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_10699.

11. Federal law "On ratification of the International Convention against doping in sport" of 12/27/2006 No. 240-FZ, available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_64829.

Contact information: [email protected]

The article was received on January 19, 2018.

DYNAMICS OF PHYSICAL PREPAREDNESS OF SCHOOLCHILDREN OF SPECIAL MEDICAL GROUP “A” IN THE PROCESS OF TRAINING IN

Lyubov Nikolaevna Kodaneva, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow

The article presents the results of dynamic monitoring of 104 students of the special medical group "A" in the process of physical education. The control groups were engaged in the traditional program for students of the SMG, and the experimental ones in the author's one. It was found that physical fitness increased in all groups, but the results in the experimental groups were significantly higher (p 0.05). The results of the study prove that the author’s program is effective, as it provides a higher level of development of motor abilities of students, helps to increase the functional capabilities of their body.

Key words: physical education, state of health, physical fitness, functionality, physical development.

DYNAMICS OF PHYSICAL PREPAREDNESS OF STUDENTS OF THE SPECIAL MEDICAL GROUP "A" DURING THE PROCESS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON

Lyubov Nikolaevna Kodaneva, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior teacher,

RUDN University, Moscow

The article presents the results of the dynamic observation of 104 students of the special medical group "A" in the process of physical education. The control group studied the traditional program for students of SMG, while the examined groups were educated according to the author's program. It is established

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municipal budgetary educational institution

Secondary school number 23

postcode 347 879 Russia, Gukovo, Rostov Region, ul. Youth 17

X SCHOOL SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL CONFERENCE "DESIGN ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS"

"Doping in children and youth sports"

them. V.A. Sheboldaeva

Moiseev Kirill Alekseevich,

Home address: Rostov Region, Gukovo,

st. Youth, d. 14, apt. 144

Kolmykova Oksana Vasilievna

2.1. Definition of doping and historical background ……………………… ..5 p.

2.2. The main groups of doping funds ..............................................

2.3. Responsibility for doping …………………………… ..10 p.

2.4. The temptation to use illegal drugs .................................. 12 p.

2.5. The use of doping in children and youth sports ………………. 12 p.

  1. Research part of the project …………………………………. 13 p.
  2. The fight against doping and informing young athletes ... .. .......... 15 pp.
  3. Conclusion .............................. ...................................... 16 p.

The problem of doping in children and youth sports has grown rapidly over the past decade. In contrast to already held adult athletes who are aware of the risk of using stimulants, children follow the orders of their trainers, imposing their model of sports behavior on them, destroying the concepts of morality in sports competitions.

Relevance. In children and youth sports, doping control is not carried out for children, which gives a certain freedom of action to coaches - mentors. Over the years, there has been a fight against doping in sports, but the results are not encouraging. An example of this is the removal of our athletes from the Olympic Games in Pyeongchang. It was not a secret that it was the reason for the suspension from the Olympics, and under what conditions Russian athletes were allowed to the 2018 Winter Olympics. I would like to note that not all athletes were allowed, but only those who received an invitation from the IOC (International Olympic Committee), “pure athletes”, were never seen in positive doping tests.

The aim of the project: to inform children and adolescents involved in sports about the dangers of doping and its consequences in adolescence.

  1. To study the nature of doping and the reasons for its use.
  2. Find out if the guys involved in sports sections face this problem.
  3. Find information on how to combat doping, give advice to children and their parents on the use of illegal drugs.

Hypothesis: I believe that the main method of combating the use of prohibited drugs in children and youth sports should be the widespread informing of growing athletes about the dangers of doping drugs, as well as the active inclusion of parents in the sports life of their children.

The theme of the project is very important, because the young generation of athletes must understand that doping is an improper behavior and disrespect for their rivals, and most importantly, a threat to the health of their lives.

Research method - social survey, questionnaire.

Subject of study: young athletes involved in the sports sections of the city, students of our school.

2.1. Definition of doping and historical background:

DOPING - (eng. Doping, from dope - to give drugs), substances that temporarily enhance the physical and mental activities of the body, used to improve athletic performance. Substances that can dramatically raise for a short time the activity of the nervous and endocrine systems and muscle strength.

According to the definition of the IOC, doping is the introduction into the body of athletes by any means of drugs that artificially increase performance and athletic performance.

The use of various kinds of stimulants to increase physical and mental performance was noted in antiquity.

So in the II century BC, Greek athletes before the competition took sesame seeds, some types of psychotropic mushrooms, so as not to feel fatigue and pain. In ancient Greece, garlic was used as a dope - the strongest dope that existed in those days.

For the first time, the death of doping was recorded back in 1886, when an English cyclist died from consuming an excessive dose of cocaine with heroin.

In the XX century, doping was widespread in the sports environment. The death of the Danish cyclist Jensen continued the mourning list of victims of great sport. In the summer of 1986, a talented American basketball player Leo Bayes dies as a result of cocaine abuse, and in 1987, professional footballer Don Rogers. And this is not a complete list of doping victims - only the tip of the iceberg, these are the cases when doctors were able to establish that death occurred directly from taking a stimulant. And how many athletes died at home, in bed, having already finished speaking, and the disease seemed in no way related to sports activities.

In addition to such formidable dangers to physical health, there are moral aspects of the use of prohibited pharmacological drugs - disqualification, shame, debunking an idol, the most striking and impressive example is the disaster of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. And how many less famous athletes were disqualified or completely excommunicated from the sport that has become their life’s business ?!

If you touch a little football. The most striking offensive football player is Diego Maradona. The legendary player was noticed in the use of doping, ephedrine (a psychostimulant, analeptic) was found in the athlete’s blood, for which he was excommunicated for fifteen months, and after this period he completely ended his career.

Russian football is also not perfect. Former Spartak employees say that the coaching duo Andrei Chernyshev and Sergei Yuran actively used bromantane (a tool that enhances general immunity, human endurance. Including in heat conditions. According to some reports, it was created specifically for use in Afghanistan.). The drug was given to players to stimulate physical rehabilitation. The team’s doctor handed out pills to the leading Spartak players before the matches. In 2004, the captain of the red-white, and the player of the Russian national team Yegor Titov received a one-year suspension for the use of bromantane.

At the 2018 World Cup, provocations against the use of doping are being prepared against the players of the Russian national team. The International Football Federation has become interested in the statement by WADA informant Grigory Rodchenkov that Russian athletes may be involved in the “state doping program”. The list includes 34 Russian football players, FIFA is going to re-test the doping samples of football players from Russia in 2018.

Russian Sports Minister Pavel Kolobkov in his interview said: “All our athletes will undergo anti-doping control. And the anti-doping officers are already working. Of course, there will be provocations. But it is necessary to react to them calmly - in a legal plane. The main thing is not to give a reason for such provocations. ”

Doping is a drug that is used by athletes to artificially, forcibly increase performance during the training process and competitive activity.

Today it is believed that the use of doping is a conscious intake of a substance that is excessive for a normal functioning body of an athlete, or an excessive dose of a medicine, for the sole purpose of artificially enhancing physical activity and endurance during sports competitions.

2.2. The main groups of doping agents:

Doping control in sports began in 1968 (from the Olympics in Mexico City) and is being improved from year to year, as, indeed, sports pharmacology.

Currently, drugs of the following 6 groups are classified as doping agents:

1. With stimulants - these are substances that act on the brain in such a way that it activates the physical and mental activity of the body as a whole, increases the concentration of attention, decreases the feeling of fatigue, creates the feeling “I can do anything!”. Stimulants include amphetamines, ephedrine, cocaine, ecstasy, etc. These drugs have a lot of side effects and are addictive.

2. Narcotic analgesics are painkillers related to narcotic drugs and cause severe dependence: morphine, methadone, heroin, pethidine. These drugs increase the pain threshold, reduce or completely eliminate pain, and athletes can continue to train or compete despite injuries and illnesses. Such funds can be detected in human blood even three months after their use.

3. Anabolics - natural or artificially synthesized substances, the action of which is similar to the male hormone testosterone. They increase muscle mass, strength and endurance, as well as increase aggressiveness and a sense of competition. Their side effects include kidney failure, infertility and impotence in men, menstrual irregularities and infertility in women, etc. Despite the danger of side effects, these drugs are widely used in amateur sports.

4. Diuretics are drugs aimed at removing fluid from the body. In small amounts, they are relatively harmless, but if used uncontrolled, they cause dehydration, dizziness, cramps, headaches, nausea, and kidney damage. Diuretics are used to quickly reduce weight or to hide the fact of using other prohibited drugs due to their accelerated elimination from the body.

5. Peptide hormones and their analogues are isolated or artificially synthesized substances that control certain functions of a person, such as growth, pain, etc. For example, growth hormones increase muscle mass and strength, and help recover quickly after injuries and training. Erythropoietin improves the ability of the blood to absorb oxygen and thus allows athletes to train longer and more intensively.

6. Blood doping is an increase in the number of red blood cells in an athlete's blood to increase its ability to absorb oxygen. To do this, you can transfuse an athlete with a donated red blood cell mass or perform autohemotransfusion. For this, two to three months before the competition, a certain amount of blood is taken from the athlete and canned. Then the blood is poured back when the body has already compensated for the deficiency. This method is especially effective for long-distance runners, cyclists and swimmers. This type of doping is extremely dangerous, as it is associated with dangerous complications in the form of infectious diseases and disorders of the internal organs.

In terms of the effect achieved, sports doping can be divided into 2 main groups:

1. Drugs used directly during the competition for short-term stimulation of working capacity, mental and physical tone of the athlete,

2. Drugs used for a long time during the training process to build muscle and ensure the athlete's adaptation to maximum physical exertion.

2.3 Responsibility for the use of doping.

In sports, a search is being made for a solution to the problem of doping. The use of prohibited drugs is not only a violation of the rules of the game, but also a way of misappropriating someone else's property, namely property owned or intended for the true winner.

The provisions on liability for the use of doping in sport are enshrined in the World Anti-Doping Code. The Code establishes such rules regarding sanctions applicable to violating athletes in individual sports, such as the annulment of sports results or disqualification for the use of prohibited drugs. Detection of doping threatens the athlete with severe penalties, up to complete excommunication from the sport. At the first detection of prohibited funds, he will be disqualified for 2 years, with a second - for life. In the case of receiving sympathomimetics for the first time - disqualification for 6 months, in the second for 2 years, in the third - for life.

Noteworthy are the provisions on liability for the use of doping in team sports. So, if more than one member of a team during a sporting event falls into the circle of suspects and is informed of a possible anti-doping rule violation, the entire team should be subjected to targeted testing. If more than one anti-doping rule violation is identified, the team may be disqualified.

The World Anti-Doping Code should apply to all athletes, coaches, instructors, officials and all medical personnel working with athletes participating in competitions or training.

In relation to coaches, inciting athletes to dope, punish with a fine up to 300 thousand rubles. and a ban on professional activities for up to 3 years, or a restriction of freedom for 1 year.

For doctors - a fine of up to 1 million rubles. or 1 year in prison, as well as a ban on professional activities for up to 4 years.

If the use of doping negligently caused death or other serious consequences, then the term of imprisonment will be up to 3 years.

The bad news

In the evening of November 25, the compliance committee of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) recommended the executive committee of this organization to allow Russian athletes to the 2020 Olympics only under a neutral flag. If these recommendations are accepted, then the Russian athletes for the second time in a row (the first was in 2018 in Pyeongchang) will be forced to compete in neutral form, and to receive medals without performing the national anthem. The 2020 Olympic Games will be held in Tokyo from July 24 to August 9.

At the beginning of the year, it seemed that the loud “doping” accusations against Russia remained in the past and we were able to convince the sports community of our interest in defeating a phenomenon that cast a shadow over Russian sports. But it seems that international sports functionaries are not ready to see the flag of Russia at the main sports competitions of the planet. New York Times reporters who are familiar with the situation are already confidently writing that the WADA executive committee will agree with the recommendations of its committee. It is expected that the executive committee will announce the decision on December 9.

Recall that in September 2018, WADA restored the status of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA), which the organization was deprived of in 2015. At the same time, WADA demanded that access to the data of doping samples of Russian athletes stored in the Moscow laboratory (it was sealed due to a federal investigation). Later, in November and December of the same year, WADA experts visited the Moscow laboratory twice, but were unable to retrieve the database due to the fact that their equipment was not certified in accordance with Russian law. In January, WADA representatives received the necessary data, and later the explanations of the Russian side. But, apparently, the previous failures became an argument, which is now used in the decision against Russian athletes.

The beginning of the scandal

The starting point for a large-scale doping scandal was Mordovia and the local Olympic Center for Walking. His pupils for many years have consistently won at the Olympics and world championships, but subsequently many of them were deprived of awards and disqualified. It turned out that doping in this center was put on stream. The process was led by the head trainer of walkers Viktor Chyogin. For this he was disqualified for life.

The exposure of the Mordovian center for sports walking attracted attention to all Russian athletes. Against the backdrop of this scandal, in December 2014, the German television channel ARD released the film Secret Doping: How Russia Produces Its Winners. In it, an ex-specialist of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) Vitaly Stepanov and his wife athlete Yulia Stepanova (Rusanova) announced a systematic substitution of doping samples in Russian athletics, and the runner Liliya Shobukhova admitted that she managed to bribe officials of the All-Russian Athletics Federation for admission to the Olympics, despite doping violations. Interestingly, Stepanova’s best athletic performance came at a time when her husband worked in RUSADA. As soon as he left there, the results instantly worsened. And soon the couple already exposed the doping system in athletics.

The television film became the basis for verification by WADA: in early 2015, the organization formed an independent commission to investigate the doping situation in Russian sports, including during the Olympics in Sochi. The commission’s work resulted in a more than 300-page report accusing Russia of “doping culture”. It dealt with the systematic use of illegal drugs, the manipulation of doping tests with the participation of doctors, trainers and employees of anti-doping laboratories and corruption in specialized federations and organizations, including even the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). RUSADA was accused of warning athletes in advance about doping tests and hiding cases of their failure to appear for testing.

The publication of the report was followed by a series of disqualifications, resignations and dismissals and the arrest of the former head of the IAAF, Lamin Diak, on suspicion of receiving bribes from Russia totaling one million euros. In November 2015, the membership of the All-Russian Athletics Federation in the IAAF was suspended, which deprived Russian athletes of the right to participate in international competitions, including the 2016 Olympics. RUSADA was recognized as not complying with the WADA code, and the Moscow anti-doping laboratory lost its accreditation.

Soon after, the entire top management of RUSADA left their posts, and the former head of the Moscow laboratory, Grigory Rodchenkov, left for the USA, where from a doping fighter he instantly turned into the main newsmaker on the topic of “doping traditions” of Russian sports.

Duchess Rodchenkov and McLaren report

In an interview with American media, the ex-head of the Moscow laboratory said that he personally participated in the substitution of about 100 samples of Russian participants in the Sochi Olympics as part of the “state doping program”, and also developed the Duchess dope - an anabolic steroid cocktail, which, on his recommendation allegedly took many athletes.

Statements of Grigory Rodchenkov, despite inconsistencies in words and strangeness in the expert’s behavior, formed the basis of a new WADA investigation. He was entrusted to the Canadian professor Richard Maclaren, who in his final report claimed that since 2011 in Russia there was a system of substituting positive doping tests for clean, passed in advance, and more than 1000 athletes from 30 sports were involved in this scheme.

After the scandal, the IOC for life suspended 43 Russian athletes from participating in the Olympic Games and stripped them of the medals won at the Games in Sochi. Athletes turned to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) and were able to prove their innocence. As a result, the court either completely canceled lifelong suspensions from the Games, or reduced sentences to skipping one Olympics. However, the removal of RUSADA remained in force, and one of the conditions for his restoration of rights was "unconditional recognition of the conclusions from the McLaren report."

In December 2017, the International Olympic Committee suspended the Russian Olympic Committee from participating in the 2018 Games. Only athletes invited by a special commission of the IOC went to Pyeongchang, and they performed there under a neutral flag.

Way to restore reputation

In response to WADA's accusations, Vitaliy Mutko, who held the post of Minister of Sports until October 2016, said that Russia had never hushed up doping problems, but categorically denied information about the existence of a sample manipulation system at the state level.

In Moscow, the accusations against Russia were officially called unfounded, and Rodchenkova - a man with "mental problems" working "under the control of American intelligence services."

In November 2015, Vladimir Putin instructed Vitaly Mutko to ensure open professional cooperation with international organizations. In 2016, the president announced the creation of a new anti-doping system in Russia. At the initiative of Putin, an independent public anti-doping commission appeared in the ROC, whose goal was to eradicate doping from Russian sports and restore the confidence of international organizations. Its chairman, Vitaly Smirnov, said that "there was no, no and never will be state support for doping in Russia," and promised to "study and respond to the McLaren report."

In 2017, a new RUSADA leadership was elected, headed by Yuri Ganus. It began to fulfill the conditions for restoring the status of an agency.

In May 2018, in an official letter on behalf of the Minister of Sports and the President of the ROC, Russia recognized “unacceptable manipulations in the anti-doping system” and the IOC’s decision, which confirmed the conclusions of the report on “systematic manipulation of the anti-doping rules and anti-doping system in Russia by hiding positive samples.” Soon, the head of the ROC, Stanislav Pozdnyakov, announced that WADA no longer required full recognition of the McLaren report, and in the same year the ROC and RUSADA were reinstated.

True, the status of RUSADA was returned in advance, subject to the provision of an electronic database (LIMS) from the Moscow anti-doping laboratory for 2012-2015 in full and without change. At the same time, WADA claimed that they had a copy of the base (most likely from Rodchenkov), however, it did not have legal force, and the agency needed the original.

And the Moscow laboratory from the very beginning of the doping proceedings was sealed by Russian special services. In November and December 2018, WADA experts visited it twice, but could not extract the data before the officially set deadline - December 31. This was not possible because WADA equipment was not certified in accordance with Russian law. Against this background, the heads of anti-doping agencies in 16 countries advocated the re-suspension of RUSADA. After the third visit, which took place in January 2019, WADA representatives received the necessary data, and RUSADA retained its status.

New claims

Thus, all the requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency were fulfilled by Russia. However, in the fall of 2019, WADA experts said they found traces of changes in the database. If you believe the representatives of the agency, information about individual positive doping tests was deleted from the database. WADA gave Russia three weeks to explain the emerging information about signs of data manipulation in the Moscow anti-doping laboratory.

The current RUSADA CEO Yuri Ganus made a loud statement: he announced thousands of such “changes” that were introduced almost on the eve of the transfer of data to WADA experts. At the same time, Ganus added that RUSADA is not related to the laboratory, and therefore to the manipulations in which it is accused.

However, the Minister of Sports Pavel Kolobkov emphasized that there was “no deletion” of information, and it was a question of “technical issues related to the system.” In addition, the ministry complied with the WADA requirement and sent a letter to the organization in which it provided the necessary clarifications.

Selective approach

Moscow has repeatedly emphasized: there is a problem of doping in our sport, however, it cannot be said that this is only a Russian problem. This is evidenced by statistics, according to which Russia is far from the leader in the number of doping violations. According to WADA data for 2016 (there are no more recent reports of this organization yet), the most violations were recorded in Italy (147). Next come France (86) and the USA (76). Russia shares the sixth line with India (69 violations each).

The story of the Fancy Bear hackers made a lot of noise. Last year, they published an investigation in which they accused the McLaren commission of collaborating with the FBI and attempting to discredit the entire Olympic movement in order to fight for power and money in world sports. Hackers backed up their accusations with documents and correspondence between the IOC and WADA senior management.

In addition, documents were published proving that WADA allowed the use of prohibited substances for "therapeutic purposes" by American athletes. Among them were tennis players Serena and Venus Williams, as well as gymnast Simone Biles. In total, according to Fancy Bear, more than 200 American athletes received permissions to receive drugs prohibited by the rules.

What should Russian athletes prepare for?

The verdict of the WADA Executive Committee concerns the next two Olympics - the summer in Tokyo in 2020 and the winter in Beijing in 2022.

However, despite the removal of Russia, WADA did not begin to introduce a complete ban on the participation of all Russian athletes in competitions. Those who prove their innocence in doping violations are left with the opportunity to play under a neutral flag, as was the case at the 2018 Olympic Games in Pyeongchang. That is, Russian athletes will compete in a neutral form, and when presenting them with medals they will not raise the Russian flag and perform the Russian anthem.

In addition, the decision of the WADA Executive Committee may still be appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport.

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