Graduates of the Zagorsky boarding school - children without sight and hearing - freely wrote poems and scientific articles. People with disabilities who could not even navigate in space learned not only how to live independently, but also developed intellectually.
Imagine that you are in a completely dark room and do not hear a single sound. Such terrible isolation is the norm for blind and deaf children. They can not hear the teacher’s speech, they do not see visual aids. Learning in such conditions borders on science fiction.
How did the leaders of the Zagorsk experiment manage to educate deaf-blind children and make them full members of society? Factum appreciated the scope of work carried out by Soviet scientists at the end of the XX century.
Deaf and Deaf Dumb PhDs
In the 18th century, blind and deaf people were equated as inferior. Such a person was considered practically a creature that is on the verge between the animal and plant world. Accordingly, there could be no talk of any normal social life. A hundred years later, the Zagorsky experiment proved: the lack of hearing and vision is not a reason to put an end to a person.
In 1971, four graduates of the Zagorsky boarding school (three boys and one girl) entered the Moscow State University at the Faculty of Psychology. Exams passed along with healthy teenagers, no benefits. Children not only managed to enter a prestigious university, but also finished it only a year later than their peers. Two guys after graduating from Moscow State University graduated from graduate school and received candidate degrees, another became a sculptor. The girl still holds the position of researcher at the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education.
Deaf-Deaf Boarding Home
Before the start of the experiment, the leaders faced a difficult task. How to develop a program for a child who does not hear or see anything? First of all, children should become independent. For this, the instructor "showed" the child the action that needed to be repeated. In the same way, the participants in the experiment learned to play.
In the boarding house where the children lived, a strict daily routine was observed. Without hearing and sight, it is impossible to navigate in space and time. Therefore, the students of Zagorsk remembered their schedule in detail. To the question “What time is it?” The instructor always listed all the actions that the child performed during the day. Objects in the room were never rearranged, but it was forbidden to help students move around. Children were taught to be independent.
Deafblind education at Moscow State University
However, learning how to live without assistance is half the battle. The experimenters planned to teach children basic school knowledge. At the heart of any mental activity is speech, so we started by mastering a special alphabet. First, blind and deaf students learned dactylic words (gestures denoting words), and then broke the words into letters and learned fingerprint alphabet. With the help of dactyl speech, children were taught Braille alphabet.
In addition, the pupils were engaged in modeling, the girls sewed, and the boys planed and sawed. For nine years (the development of the basic program lasted so long), children successfully completed the study of all school subjects. An exception was chemistry, which cannot be studied tactilely.
The next step is to study at a university with regular students. The task was complicated by the fact that there was no question of adapting the program for the disabled. As it turned out, Zagorsk children did not need this. Teenagers attended a lecture with a translator who converted ordinary words into dactyl ones. They brought to the seminars teleactorsturning text into braille.
Criticism of the Zagorsk experiment
The philosopher Ewald Ilyenkov and his colleagues, using the Zagorsky experiment, wanted to emphasize the importance of speech and human modes of action for the formation of healthy thinking. After mastering this minimum, even roads for blind and deaf children opened up.
Critics consider the non-congenital inferiority of children to be the main failure of the experiment. One boy was deaf and visually impaired from birth, was blind at five years old (he was very weak, but he heard). The other two - lost their sight at four years old, and hearing - after seven years. The girl ceased to see at two years old, and to hear at nine years old. Thus, completely blind and deaf children remained beyond the bounds of normal life. According to critics, without hearing and vision from birth, there is no chance for a disabled person to form a normal psyche.
In Rostov-on-Don, specialists are creating a hearing aid for deaf citizens, the DSTU said.
“The project of the device was submitted to the Don Assembly. 2018 competition. It has already passed the first tests,” it was informed.
The development belongs to the third-year student Ilya Korenets. It will help to distinguish sounds without surgical operations. The university clarified that there are indirect analogs of the device, but they can only report the presence of sound.
Korenets explained that there is an algorithm in his device, he can transmit all the characteristics of sound. Sound data is transformed into tactile sensations.
“Deaf people will be able to sense and analyze sounds through the skin and their sources,” said the developer.
Currently, the device is equipped with a power button, a scale and a signal level control. During the tests, a deaf girl was able to determine the number that she was called.
The main stages of the development of foreign sound pedagogy
The problems of the theory and practice of teaching and educating the deaf have a rather long history and are characterized by different approaches (A. G. Basova and S. F. Egorov, A. I. Dyachkov, G. L. Zaitseva, N. N. Malofeev, N. M . Nazarova, G. N. Penin and others).
A special attitude towards the deaf is observed already in the period of the 9th – 8th centuries. BC e.
In ancient Greece and ancient Rome, there was no system for educating children with hearing problems. In ancient states, the "deaf-mute" were not full members of society, they were recognized as untrained. The Justinian Codex (VI century A.D.) established guardianship over the “inferior”, deaf from birth were recognized as legally incompetent, as it was believed that they were not able to manage their property, express their opinion orally or in writing.
In ancient medicine, there was an idea of the supernatural nature of deafness and the impossibility of curing it, and only Aristotle (384–322 BC) in his philosophical treatises "On the feelings of the senses" and "On the sensory perceptions and their objects," arguing about the causal dependence of the senses, revealed the negative impact of deafness and dumbness on the development of the child’s mental abilities, considering the hearing organ as the most important tool for cognition, and considering dumbness as a consequence of congenital deafness.
With the advent of Christianity, a merciful attitude is formed towards people with developmental problems, but at the same time, the number of religious prejudices and superstitious prejudices is growing. Deafness is presented as the "punishment of God" sent for sins.
In the era of the early Middle Ages in Europe, a tradition began to take shape of restricting the rights of persons with developmental disabilities. The philosophers-theologians theoretically substantiated the inferiority of people with congenital disabilities, and medieval legislation did not recognize disabled people as capable.
The first attempts to teach the deaf occurred in the period of the XV century. The theory and practice of education and training of deaf-mutes that originated in Western Europe interested many scientists of that time. This was facilitated by the emergence in the Renaissance of progressive views on the cognitive abilities of the deaf. Dutch scientist Rudolph Agricola (1443-1485) in his book On the Discovery of Dialectics, spoke of the possibility of teaching deaf-mute written language using special methods and techniques, citing a number of specific examples.
Italian professor Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576) in his works “On the Subtleties”, “On the Physiology of Senses” and “On My Life” gave a physiological explanation of deafness, showed that deafness comes from a disease, and dumbness from deafness. He created first classification of deafness: deaf from birth, early hearing loss (before the child learned to speak) and late deaf, preserved speech. D. Cardano for the first time gave a physiological justification for deafness and dumbness and proved the possibility of teaching the deaf through the use of intact sensory organs. He also belongs to the idea of creating a differentiated approach to teaching the deaf, taking into account the degree of hearing loss and the level of speech development.
The theoretical views of D. Cardano received their practical confirmation in Spain. Pedro Ponso de Leon (1520–1584) created an original method for teaching the deaf and successfully introduced it into the practice of individual education for children from aristocratic families. P. Ponso used various types of speech in his methodology: oral, written, dactyl, and gestural.
H.P. Bonnet (1579–1633) in his treatise On the Nature of Sounds and the Art of Teaching the Deaf to Speak (1620), considering the goals and objectives of teaching and educating the deaf at that time, he spoke about the need to teach such people verbal speech through its ductile and oral forms. He noted the importance of speech in the development of students' mental abilities when using the question-answer form of speech in teaching the deaf by a special teacher.
E. R. Carrion (1579–1652), developing in practice the ideas of his contemporaries, he relied in the training of the deaf on tactile-vibrational sensations and the remnants of hearing.
The ideas of H.P. Bonnet were further developed in the form of separate attempts to teach the deaf in Europe: in England - John Wallis (1616–1703) and J. Bullver, in Switzerland - J.K. Amman (1669–1724), in the Netherlands - F.M. Van Helmont (1614–1699), in Italy - F. L. Tertius (1631–1687).
Attempts to individual learning were an objective consequence of the social order of representatives of the nobility who had children with hearing impairments. However, the positive experience of individual learning for a long time did not lead to the organization of educational institutions for this category of children.
Only in the 70s. XVIII century attempts are being made to organize and develop special institutions for the training and education of the deaf.
In 1770, the first private school in the world was opened in France - the Paris Institute of the Deaf, organized by Charles Michel de Eppe (1712-1789). He became the creator of the mimic method, which was based on the ideas of the French enlightenment Voltaire, D. Didro, J.-J. Russo and others
The ideas of C. M. de Eppe developed R. A. Sikar (1742-1822). His system was aimed at the comprehensive mental and physical development of the personality of a deaf child, at assimilation of a number of general educational knowledge, preparation for work and life in society. However, to solve these problems throughout the entire training period, only a sign form of speech was used, on the basis of which the deaf mastered writing. Despite the addition of sign language with “methodological signs”, the practical application of the mimic method did not allow us to solve the tasks assigned to it in full.
April 14, 1778 in Leipzig Samuel Heinicke (1727–1790) founded the first Institute for the Deaf and Dumb in Germany. He developed his system for teaching the deaf, later called pure oral method, which recognized oral speech as the main means and purpose of learning. Children also mastered reading, writing and arithmetic. The training was based on mechanical exercises in the technique of pronouncing sounds, syllables, words, phrases, in the initial period of training, the emphasis was on the formation of pronunciation skills.
In the XIX century. in France Alexander Blanchet (1817—?) Organized joint training for the deaf with hearing children. At the same time, deaf people stood out in a special class in a regular school, and hearing-impaired children studied together with ordinary children. In A. Blanchet's work “A Guide for a Mentor ...” (1858), general methodological guidelines were given for this method of teaching deaf children, the categories of deaf were distinguished: deaf and dumb speakers (deaf), methods of teaching oral speech by gestures, facial expressions and fingerprinting were revealed.
Also appeared in France intuitive (maternal) method of Jean Jacques Valad-Gabel (1801–1879), which was based on the development of the speech of small hearing normal. This method eliminated the use of sign language and put written speech using visualization in the form of tablets (global reading) in first place in addition to oral (sounding) speech, while dactyl speech was given great importance. J.J. Valad-Gabel believed that oral speech is inaccessible to the deaf, and believed that global reading without studying the letters of the alphabet is most accessible to the deaf.
In 1779, the Institute of the Deaf was opened in Vienna (Austria), in which the mimic method of instruction was transformed I. Mayem (1754–1820) and F. Shtork (1746–1820): The fingerprint alphabet was widely used, and sign language was used only as an adjunct. This work continued M. Menus (1774–1850), who supplemented this method and introduced the teaching of deaf oral speech.
The purely oral method, which had been widely developed at that time, was gradually modified. So, F. M. Gil (1805–1874) created a series of guidelines for teaching deaf speaking, lip reading, writing, and reading. New in his system was the expansion of the circle of general educational subjects in the content of the training of the deaf. Gil’s methodology was based on the principle of nature conformity and knowledge of the characteristics of children's perception and later became known as a natural method for teaching deaf children.
Johann Fatter (1842–1916), on the contrary, set the main goal of learning to master oral verbal speech, and not a set of knowledge. He reduced the training of deaf to spoken language to the teaching of speech sounds. Later, the I. Fatter system received a second name - sound method.
In the USA, the first Deaf Institute (school) was opened in 1817. Thomas Gallaude (1787–1851). Education in this educational institution was conducted according to the French method using writing, gestures and fingerprinting. In the future, based on our own and European experience Horace Man (1796–1859) and Edward Gallaude (1837–1907) created a combined system combining various teaching methods and including, among other things, teaching oral speech.
Developed the problems of teaching deaf children spoken language Alexander Melville Bell (1815–1905), who proposed the “visible speech” system: each sound received its own sign denoting articulation. His son Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922) founded the Physiological and Phonetic Institute and the Society for the Promotion of the Education of the Deaf in Oral Speech, invented the telephone, and also paid considerable attention to the issues of early education for the deaf.
In 1879, the first congresses on the education of the deaf took place in Paris and in 1880 in Milan. At the Milan Congress, the system of pure oral method was recognized as universal, because, as noted in the resolution, it provided the deaf with means of communication with the hearing.
The year of adoption of the law on compulsory universal free primary education can be considered the lower limit of this period in the development of society’s views on the education of the deaf in each country. The general trends of this period are characterized by the fact that the foundation was laid for a system of special state institutions for the training of deaf-mutes, laws were adopted, sources of financing were identified, goals and teaching methods were developed.Special education covered most regions of Europe and America, and the emerging activities of non-governmental organizations for the training and education of the deaf-mute contributed to the further development of their training system.
At the end of XIX - beginning of XX century. the sound educators of Europe and America tried to improve and overcome the formalism of the pure oral method, which set as the main goal the teaching of oral (sound) speech, and not the acquisition by deaf children of general educational knowledge.
German teacher of the deaf I. Heydzik (1851–1942) criticized the pure oral method as not appropriate for the nature of the deaf child. Initially, he advocated a return to the mimic method, and later proposed building teaching of deaf oral speech using dactylology.
Konstantin Malish (1860–1925) created global (whole) synthetic method initial learning deaf spoken language. Speech training was conducted through the production of whole words and phrases based on babble speech.
Another German scientist, K. Gepfert (1851–1906), built teaching of deaf children written language on the writing mechanism, and his followers developed the idea of using written language in the initial period of study.
Danish scientist Georg Forchhammer (1861–1948) created his imitative method teaching the deaf, which combined the written method with the oral-colloquial and was based on the perception and reproduction of oral speech using written exercises.
Rudolph Linder (1880–1964) developed writing method, where teaching written language was conducted in the process of teaching reading with the wide use of visualization (primer "Word and Picture", 1911).
Alexander Erlen (1877–1930) created Belgian method, which represented a rather coherent system of language learning for deaf children and was based on the perception of oral speech through global reading of written words and lip-reading.
A variation of the written method was and holistic method of E. Kernwho dismissed the use of sign language and fingerprinting in teaching deaf spoken language based on writing.
In connection with the development of otorhinolaryngology, the boundaries of audiopedagogy have also expanded. Austrian V. Urbanchich (1847–1921) developed auditory exercises, which consisted in the study of residual hearing through a special device (Urbanchich harmonic) when teaching children the method of auditory gymnastics.
German scientist F. Bezold (1842–1908) in the training of the deaf also relied on the use of hearing impairment, for the study of which he developed tuning fork system.
Since 1951, in Zagreb (Croatia) there is a polyclinic for the restoration of hearing in the deaf, the head of which P. Guberina created the so-called verbotonal method based on the maximum use of residual hearing.
In the XX century. both in foreign and in domestic pedagogy, there has been a further improvement in the classification and differentiation of education for people with hearing impairments, more attention has been paid to working with the family of a deaf child, a training system for sign language teachers has been developed, educational and educational work in schools has improved (attention has been paid to general development, to the issues of intensification of the educational process, they received further development of the system of vocational training, sports training, began to be widely used amplifying equipment and the latest technical training tools).
National and international organizations for the deaf have been created (World Federation of the Deaf, 1950). International congresses of deaf-educators and deaf were held at which the development of the theory and practice of teaching people with hearing impairments was discussed.
In the first half of the XX century. the system has developed and developed differentiated training and education of children with hearing impairment in special institutions.
In the 70s. of the last century, a new attitude has been formed towards the position and training of the deaf. In 1975, the United Nations adopted Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which legally abolished the division of society into a "full majority" and "inferior minority." The development of science and technology - the emergence of highly sensitive individual hearing aids, cochlear implantation, and special computer programs - also contributed to facilitating the entry of deaf people into hearing society.
During these years, the first cases of the closure of special schools and the transfer of children with hearing impairments to educational institutions for hearing children appeared in Western Europe and the USA. This trend is called mainstreaming (from English mainstreaming - inclusion in the general stream), or integration. In 1980–1990 in many countries legislative acts have been adopted to reduce (sometimes close all) special schools and the integration of children with hearing impairments in the environment of students who hear.
Note that along with positive factors, integration entails many problems: increasing funding for education, the need for individual work with a deaf child, and special training for the main teacher. Moreover, the teacher’s increased attention to integrated children with developmental problems inevitably leads to a decrease in the quality of education for the bulk of students.
The opposite integration concept is bilingual approachwhose supporters believe that the deaf have their own culture, their own, sign language. Bilingualism has its own learning system, which is built on the basis of sign language and the cultivation of a special culture of the deaf minority.
These two approaches to the training and education of people with hearing impairments are opposite in essence, have their pros and cons, but both have the right to exist, and parents have the right to choose one or another system for teaching their child.