What does the blood test say - many people ask this question as soon as they get the test results. Each of us donated blood from a finger. Let's face it, the procedure is not pleasant, someone even faints. However, a procedure is needed to find out the general blood composition shown. The main indicators of blood are platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin and ROE. Let's dwell on each of them in more detail, and then we can understand what the blood test is talking about.
Platelets responsible for blood coagulation. When the platelet count decreases, they speak of the presence of immune disorders. Due to such manifestations, the number of platelets in the blood decreases or their structure changes. These blood cells can increase in the blood and due to dehydration.
White blood cells - The surest indicator of inflammation in the body. These white blood cells immediately increase if there is any inflammatory process in the body. If white blood cells are reduced, then we are talking about exhaustion and immunodeficiency.
Red blood cells, or the so-called red blood cells, are a vehicle for oxygen to the tissues of the body, and also send carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
Hemoglobin - The most complex red blood cell that contains iron. It is with its help that oxygen is transferred to the tissues. Fatigue, dizziness, nausea - all this can be the consequences of anemia, that is, a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood.
ROE Is the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. If it is insufficient, this indicates a severe or chronic inflammation in the body.
Thus, a blood test reveals various disorders at the cellular level. Further, based on the results of the analysis, the doctor directs the patient to additional examinations. Therefore, professionally only a doctor can answer the question "What does a blood test say?"
What does the general blood test mean?
We examined the main indicators of blood. So what does the general blood test and its indicators mean?
- Red blood cells and hemoglobin immediately show the presence of anemia, and a change in the red (color) indicator allows you to determine the type of anemia. If the changes affected the shape and size of the cells themselves, then this helps to determine the presence of other types of anemia.
- An increase in red blood cells indicates dehydration. However, such an indicator can also occur with congenital disorders in the structure of hemoglobin.
- A decrease in platelet count indicates serious bleeding disorders. Platelet deficiency is caused by viral and infectious diseases, as well as the ingestion of medications, such as antibiotics.
- An increased platelet count indicates chronic inflammation and malignant tumors.
- The cause of the increase in white blood cells may be a bacterial infection or liver disease. Such an analysis result is possible with poisoning and allergies.
- A reduced white blood cell count is quite rare, because it is characteristic of radiation sickness or diseases associated with increased radiation.
Blood test rates
Normal indicators of a healthy person:
- hemoglobin - 120-160 g / l,
- color indicator - 0.85-1.15,
- white blood cells - 4-9x10 9,
- erythrocytes - 3.7-5.1x10 12,
- platelets - 180-320x10 9,
- ESR (ROE) - 1-15 mm / h.
Have you noticed how much variation is observed in some indicators? This suggests that they are different for men and women, and may also depend on age. Therefore, only an experienced doctor should find out what the indicators of a blood test are talking about.
What does a biochemical blood test mean?
The most accurate information about the condition of internal organs is given by a biochemical blood test. It is no longer taken from the finger, but from the vein. What does a biochemical blood test say? To understand this, you need to disassemble the basic substances in the blood. The following indicators are distinguished in a biochemical blood test:
- Glucose - both for us and for the cells, this is pure energy. Glucose is closely related to insulin (pancreatic hormone). For the absorption of glucose, it is necessary that the body has a normal content of this hormone. Everyone knows what a blood test says about sugar - it indicates the presence or absence of signs of diabetes. However, an increase in this indicator in the blood is also possible after eating. Therefore, tests are taken on an empty stomach.
- Common bilirubin - It is an integral component of bile. High rates of this substance indicate starvation, a strict diet or liver disease.
- Urea - This substance is removed from our body by the kidneys and is a product of protein metabolism. An increased indicator indicates impaired renal function.
- Protein - designed to regulate metabolism. It transfers various substances through the blood to cells and accelerates biochemical reactions in the body. If there is little protein in the blood, this means the presence of prolonged inflammatory diseases. An increase in its level indicates diseases of the blood, connective tissue.
- Creatinine - a substance that is excreted by the kidneys. It is a product of protein metabolism. Any abnormalities indicate kidney disease.
- Amylase - an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and parotid salivary glands. A decrease in blood amylase may indicate a disease such as hepatitis. Any abnormality indicates pancreatic dysfunction.
- Cholesterol - A well-known substance that is involved in the formation of certain hormones, vitamins and acids. Its level is increased in diseases such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, thyroid disease.
These are the main substances, the blood content of which shows a biochemical blood test. Deciphering it is a rather painstaking task, because in order to make a correct diagnosis it is necessary to look at the overall clinical picture as a whole, therefore only an experienced doctor can do this.
Currently, there are many ways to diagnose diseases, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. Unfortunately, not all studies help to accurately identify a particular pathology. For example, using X-ray and ultrasound, only serious anatomical abnormalities in the development of organs and systems of the body are determined, and functional abnormalities during such an examination, as a rule, cannot be detected. Therefore, doctors, in addition to the above research methods, prescribe certain tests to patients. It is laboratory tests that allow you to identify violations in the functioning of organs and systems of the body, to detect pathogens of infection, to make the correct diagnosis and prescribe treatment.
Some diseases (cancer, urinary tract infections, endocrine pathologies, etc.) can be almost asymptomatic for a long time, so it is recommended that every person take blood and urine tests periodically to make sure there are no deviations or, if any, start treatment on time. In addition to deciphering the most common tests, this book provides medical examination schemes, including lists of necessary laboratory tests.
Preparing for the test
Laboratory studies allow timely and accurate diagnosis of various diseases. After all, their manifestations are primarily reflected in metabolic processes in the body. More than 50% of the patient’s health information provides doctors with test results. It is the data from laboratory studies that allow doctors to choose the tactics of treatment.
The accuracy of the test results depends not only on the qualifications of the laboratory assistants and the quality of the reagents and equipment, but also on the preparation of the patient for the study, that is, on the time and accuracy of the collection of material.
Blood donation procedure
Almost all blood tests should be taken on an empty stomach - at least 8 hours (preferably 12 hours) should elapse between the last meal and blood sampling. Before blood sampling, you can drink only water. However, this does not apply to a general blood test: it can be taken 1 hour after breakfast, which may consist of non-sweet tea, cereal without sugar, butter and milk, as well as an apple.
Blood on a C-peptide and insulin should be given strictly on an empty stomach until 10 in the morning.
Also, throughout the day, regardless of the meal, you can take tests for genetic polymorphisms.
Analysis for hormones and antibodies to infections can be taken 6 hours after the last meal.
For a number of studies, blood is donated strictly at a certain time of the day. For example, blood for iron and some hormones donate only until 10 in the morning.
An analysis to determine the lipid profile should be taken 12 hours after a meal.
A few days before the examination, it is recommended to exclude alcohol from the diet, as well as fried, smoked, salty, spicy and fatty foods.
1 hour before blood sampling, you should refrain from smoking, and on the eve of the study, exclude physical activity.
If an analysis is prescribed that determines the level of uric acid in the blood, a few days before the study, it is necessary to abandon meat, liver, kidneys, fish, coffee and tea, as well as to exclude intense physical activity. The diet should be followed 2 days before the blood test for viral hepatitis. In this case, citrus fruits and carrots should be excluded from the diet.
If treatment with drugs is prescribed, blood should be donated before they are taken or not earlier than 10-14 days after they are canceled.
You can not donate blood after physiotherapy procedures, ultrasound, massage, reflexology, rectal examination and radiography.
It is recommended that women donate blood for hormone testing strictly on the days of the cycle: LH and FSH - 3-5 days, estradiol - 5-7th or 21-23th, prolactin, DHA sulfate and testosterone - 7-9 progesterone - 21-23rd day.
Women before collecting urine should wash the vagina and labia with a sterile cotton swab moistened with warm soapy water, moving from front to back. After this, it is recommended to wash the genitals with warm boiled water and pat it with a sterile cloth.
During menstruation, urinalysis is not recommended.
Before collecting urine, men need to rinse the outer opening of the urethra with warm soapy water, then rinse with warm boiled water and pat it dry with a sterile cloth.
Urine collection for general analysis
For a general analysis, the first morning urine should be collected immediately after waking up on an empty stomach.
Women who urinate need to push their labia apart, men to completely pull off the skin fold and free the outer opening of the urethra.
You can store urine in the refrigerator for no more than 1.5 hours.
It is recommended to collect urine in a glass sterile container, and then pour 40-50 ml from the total volume into a special sterile container, close it tightly with a lid and immediately deliver it to the laboratory.
Daily urine collection
To determine the content of total protein, albumin, glucose, creatinine, bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium, urine must be collected within 24 hours under normal drinking conditions (about 1.5 liters of fluid per day).
The patient should empty the bladder at 6-8 in the morning (this portion does not give up for analysis), and then collect all urine into a sterile dark glass vessel with a capacity of at least 2 liters during the day. In this case, the last portion of urine must be collected at the same time as the first. After collecting urine, it is necessary to measure and record its volume, and then shake and pour 50—
100 ml for laboratory research in a special container with a lid.
The urine container must be closed with a lid and stored on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
Urine collection for research by Nechiporenko
In the morning on an empty stomach, you should collect an average portion of urine. The collection is carried out according to the method of a three-glass test: first you need to urinate in the first glass, then in the second and third. The second (middle) portion of urine should be larger. It must be collected in sterile glassware, and then pour 20-30 ml into a special container with a lid and delivered to the laboratory.
General analysis and analysis for dysbiosis
It is necessary to collect feces for research in the morning. Defecation should be done in a dry, clean container.
You can not take feces for analysis after an X-ray examination, taking a laxative, activated carbon, iron, bismuth preparations, as well as using rectal suppositories and enemas.
A sample of feces (2-4 g) from different sections of the entire portion should be transferred to a special container using a clean spoon.
The container must be closed with a lid and delivered to the laboratory.
Helminth egg test
For this study, you need to take material from the perianal folds. This should be done in the morning before urination, bowel movement and hygiene.
A cotton swab needs to be held several times around the anus, then put the stick in a special container and deliver to the laboratory.
Sperm collection rules
Sperm analysis is done after 48 hours of abstinence. The same amount of time is not recommended to take alcohol, medications, and steam in a bath.
In the morning after waking up, the patient needs to urinate, and then wash the external opening of the urethra with warm water and soap. Material for research is given by masturbation to a sterile container.
Blood is the liquid tissue of the body, which includes plasma and the shaped elements suspended in it. In a healthy adult, blood plasma is about 52-60%, and uniform elements - 40-48%. The plasma contains water (90%), the proteins dissolved in it (about 7%), and other mineral and organic compounds. The main plasma proteins are globulins, albumin and fibrinogen. Inorganic salts make up about 1% of plasma. Also, blood plasma contains nutrients (lipids and glucose), vitamins, enzymes, hormones, metabolic products, as well as inorganic ions.
Blood cells include white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
White blood cells - white blood cells - are part of the body’s immune system. They produce antibodies and are involved in immune responses. Normally, there are less leukocytes in the blood than other uniform elements.
The structure of red blood cells - red blood cells - includes hemoglobin (a protein containing iron), which gives the blood a red color. Hemoglobin carries gases, primarily oxygen.
The composition of blood plasma includes gases, in particular oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Platelets - blood platelets - are fragments of the cytoplasm of giant bone marrow cells, limited to the cell membrane. They provide blood coagulation, thereby protecting the body from severe blood loss.
General blood analysis
A general clinical blood test allows you to identify a number of diseases at the earliest stages of their development. That is why a blood test is always done with preventive examinations. Repeated blood tests allow you to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.
Normal values of the general blood test are given in tables 1 and 2.
Normal blood counts