The diet for cancer depends on many different factors: the stage of development of the disease, the affected organ or system, the condition of the patient, the degree of impaired mineral metabolism in cancer (protein-energy deficiency, hypercalcemia, Iron-deficiency anemia, water-electrolyte disturbances and so on), the currently used treatment methods.
In addition, with cancer, many patients develop concomitant damage to organs and systems, which also requires adjustment of therapeutic nutrition. Therefore, with oncological diseases, a single diet does not exist and, in principle, cannot be.
Oncology for malignant diseases in the initial stages in the absence of concomitant diseases, outside the period chemotherapy and radiation exposure is based on rational (healthy) nutrition. Nutrition should ensure energy adequacy and prevent development obesity.
The diet should include all food groups, but dairy and vegetable products should be predominant. The diet should include at least 500 g of vegetables / fruits per day, as well as dairy products. It is recommended to reduce the consumption of any red meat, especially fatty, fried, smoked and sausage-meat products from it, increasing the consumption of meat, poultry and fish. Limit your intake of salt and foods containing a lot of salt.
Do not exceed the norm of ethyl alcohol consumption (20 g / day) when taking alcohol-containing drinks. Do not eat too hot / cold food.
Food should be tastier and more varied than in a healthy person, as many cancer patients suffer from appetite and taste and habits, especially with limited patient mobility, which often leads to refusal of food. It is necessary to include more often fresh vegetables, fruits and juices from them, whole grain products.
First of all, one should take into account the patient’s tastes as much as possible and prepare his favorite dishes. In the absence of specific contraindications, the patient should eat what he wants at the moment.
Drinking regimen - familiar to the patient. In the absence of kidney disease, it is desirable to increase fluid intake due to fermented milk drinks (kefir, yogurt) and milk, vegetable and fruit juices, tea, table mineral water.
The progression of diseases in cancer patients is accompanied by eating disorders because malignant tumors cause metabolic disorders with shifts in various types of metabolism (protein, carbohydrate, energy and others). This is especially pronounced in cancer tumors at stages 3-4. As a rule, at this stage, patients are prescribed intensive antitumor treatment (radical surgery to remove the tumor, intensive courses chemotherapy, radiation exposure), which negatively affect the nutritional status of patients.
Chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy are especially powerful, causing nausea, taste changes, aversion to food, vomiting, diarrhea, depressive statesand later intestinal fistulas and strictures appear. In many patients with oncology, grade 3-4 occurs psychogenic anorexia. These phenomena lead to the development of cachexia and protein-energy malnutrition with marked depletion of protein reserves.
With such conditions, in between treatment courses, after improving well-being, it is necessary to increase the amount of food taken and the frequency of meals. It is necessary to take food at any desire, to eat, even if the time for food has not come.
In the absence or poor appetite, it is recommended to include in the diet energy intensive productsallowing for a small amount to obtain a sufficient amount of nutrients: red caviar, pastes, eggs, sprats, honey, nuts, chocolate, cream, creams. They can also be consumed between main meals. To improve appetite, it is necessary to add spices to the dishes, seasonings in the form of sauces of pickled vegetables, sour juices, which contribute to the secretion of gastric juice, and accelerate the digestion of food.
In the period between chemotherapy courses, in the absence of contraindications, the use of table dry wines, beer or more strong alcoholic drinks in an amount of 20-30 ml is allowed. During the course of chemotherapy courses should increase fluid intake, mainly due to juices and sour-milk drinks. In the presence of edema or effusion in the abdominal / pleural cavity, fluid intake, on the contrary, should be reduced and not exceed the volume of the allocated daily urine by more than 400 ml.
Nutrition in cancer is adjusted depending on the symptoms and condition of the patient. So, the leading symptoms during chemotherapy are severe nausea and prolonged vomiting, which leads to dehydration and impaired water-salt metabolism.
In order to reduce vomiting and nausea it is recommended:
- do not take liquid and food for 1-2 hours before the introduction of a chemotherapy drug,
- with frequent attacks of vomiting, one should refrain from drinking and eating for 4-8 hours, and then take a little bit of food, mostly liquid,
- take food in small portions, 6-7 times a day and chew thoroughly, avoiding overflow of the stomach,
- nausea is reduced by eating acidic and salty foods (cranberries, lemons, pickles),
- food should be at room temperature,
- exclude from the diet foods that have a strong odor and a specific taste, whole milk, too fatty and spicy foods (you can include it again in the diet after the disappearance of nausea),
- Do not take liquid during meals, but take it more in between meals.
With an increase in severe complications, patients often completely refuse to eat because of severe nausea and vomiting. In such cases, exhaustion increases already from forced starvation, and the patient must be transferred to artificial nutrition, starting with parenteral nutrition and at the same time enteral nutrition is prescribed (or through it) (via a probe).
Parenteral nutrition for cancer is carried out by introducing nutrients bypassing the digestive tract, directly into the vascular bed or other internal environments of the body. The main components of parenteral nutrition are divided into: energy donors (fat emulsions, carbohydrate solutions) and protein nutrition (solutions amino acids), which are introduced into the patient's body according to special schemes.
Enteral nutrition for cancer patients with increasing depletion of the body is a fairly effective way of feeding patients. Probe diets consist of liquid and semi-liquid foods and dishes that enter directly into the stomach / small intestine through the probe. Dense dishes are ground or ground and diluted with a liquid corresponding to the nature of the nutrient mixture (broth, milk, tea, vegetable broths, fruit juice). The temperature of the dishes is about 45 degrees.
Most commonly used Diet number 1 or 2and in case of concomitant diseases - liquid diet food corresponding to the disease. For probe nutrition, special industrial production nutrition can be recommended: composite, impitan, enpits, ovolact other. You can also use specialized baby food, for example, Nutricia products, which you can buy in baby food stores. Such mixtures are well balanced and enriched with vitamins and minerals. They can be used as independent dishes, as well as to add to other dishes and drinks.
A frequent manifestation of the negative effects of chemo and radiation therapy is a disorder of the stool, more often - diarrhea. Diet should focus on bowel sparing and compensation of nutrients lost due to malabsorption. For this purpose, foods that reduce intestinal motility are included in the diet: mashed cereal soups, porridges on water, soft boiled eggs, mashed potatoes on water, meatballs steamed from meat, poultry and fish, freshly prepared cottage cheese, bananas, jelly, mashed apples, green tea, blueberry, chokeberry and currant mousse.
The consumption of animal-rich foods is limited. Eat fractionally, in small portions. With normalization of stool, the patient is transferred to a more diverse and less sparing diet with limited food rich in fiber. Nutrition according to the type of diet of the rubbed and non-rubbed version of the diet in chronic enteritis.
A large group of complications are ulcerative stomatitiscomplicating food intake and inflammation of the mucous membrane of the esophagus (esophagitis), manifested by difficulty and pain when swallowing solid food, pain behind the sternum, less often vomiting or regurgitation. Dietary nutrition in such cases should be based on the maximum sparing of the mucous membrane of the mouth and esophagus. Spicy, hot, salty and sour foods, dry dishes should be excluded.
The diet should only have well-wiped food, consisting of semi-liquid warm dishes (mucous soups, omelettes, steamed meat and fish purees and soufflés, cereals, milk and jelly). Bread, spicy sauces and spices, fried and whole-piece dishes are excluded from the diet. Alcohol, coffee, hot and cold foods are prohibited. In the acute period - you can use specialized children's dietary concentrates (cereals, meat, vegetables, fruit), yogurt, cottage cheese, non-acidic jelly, mild grated cheeses, as the acute symptoms subside - slightly salted broths, soups (cream soup) and then well grated dishes.
It is based on the exclusion of salt from the diet, since it is assumed that it has a strong effect on the electrolyte balance of the tumor. The author believes that the salt contained in the products is quite enough for the body. The diet involves the frequent and maximum (several liters / day) consumption of vegetable and fruit fresh juices, which are sources antioxidants.
Animal fats, protein products (red meat) and technologically processed foods (canned food, sausages, smoked meats, salted and refined foods) are excluded from the diet. It is forbidden to consume spices, legumes, nuts, berries, carbonated drinks, chocolate, ice cream, tea, coffee, sour cream, alcohol. The diet includes many environmentally friendly vegetables and fruits, mainly in raw form (except for pineapple, cucumbers and avocados). As well as bakery cereals, whole grain cereals, rich in dietary fiber.
After 1.5 months of such a diet, it is allowed to include low-fat dairy products in low amounts in low-fat fish. In parallel, juice from the calf liver, bee products, thyroid extract, coffee enemas are taken. Food should be cooked with a minimum amount of water over low heat.
Cornelius Moerman Cancer Diet
The diet proposed by the author is aimed at limiting the diet of harmful substances and activating the body's defenses with food. The main principles are:
- Maintaining low blood levels glucose, which is achieved by limiting / excluding from the diet foods containing simple carbohydrates (sugar, honey, jam, jam, confectionery).
- The diet contains mainly plant products, the consumption of animal proteins is limited in order to reduce the processes of protein synthesis by tumor cells.
- Fiber-rich foods and foods with anticarcinogenic activity are included in the diet (carotenoids, green tea, garlic, cruciferous vegetables), and freshly squeezed juices (cabbage, beetroot, carrot, apple, blackcurrant).
- The diet includes iodine and sulfur preparations, antioxidant vitamins, citric acid.
- It is necessary to use products from bran and whole grains.
- With absence anemia red meat, liver and iron-rich preparations are excluded from the diet. (for the intake of a sufficient amount omega 3 acids should consume various nuts, sea fish (3 times a week), linseed and olive oil).
- To correct bowel function and replenish calcium reserves, fat-free dairy products (kefir, yoghurts) should be included in the diet, while introducing cultures of beneficial intestinal microorganisms.
- Salt intake is limited.
- Drinking regimen - up to 2 liters of liquid, it is advisable to drink melt or artesian water and prepare teas, infusions and decoctions on it.
- The use of coffee and alcohol is contraindicated.
Diet V. Laskin
The author’s anti-cancer diet is based on the use of large quantities. Quercetinhaving a pronounced antioxidant effect and the ability to bind free radicals. As a result, recovery processes are started in the patient’s body, amplified immunity. To rich foods quartzine include buckwheat, brown rice and rose hips. The diet is carried out in 2 stages.
At the first stage, the duration of 3-4 weeks, the diet is sharply limited. Red meat, sugar, salt are excluded. The basis of the diet is buckwheat and vegetable products: berries (rose hips), fruits, vegetables, nuts.
Separate food (proteins and carbohydrates cannot be combined in one meal). In the morning and before dinner, a mixture is prepared for nutrition in the composition of ground dogrose, vitamin flour and honey, which is diluted with water to the state of gruel. During the day, buckwheat porridge with fiber and seasoned with olive oil is used for all three doses. For a snack, raisins with green tea and freshly prepared juices diluted with water are used.
At the second stage, lasting about 1.5 months, the diet expands due to the inclusion of proteins in the form of chicken meat or fish. Menus can enrich the menu with dried fruits and nuts, bran. Protein intake should not be higher than 0.4-0.6 g per 1 kg of patient weight.
The diet should contain energy-intensive, easily digestible products: grain bread, wholemeal bread, soups and cereals from millet, unpolished or brown rice, buckwheat, crispbread, boiled potatoes, red caviar, soy cheese, butter, various types of red fish, tuna, herring, liver, olive, sunflower and flaxseed oil, soft-boiled eggs, milk and dairy products, sour cream, chocolate, cheeses.
Be sure to include poultry meat (turkey, chicken), rabbit meat in the diet. Red meat - in small quantities, mainly veal or lean beef. It is important to have “soft” vegetables and salads based on them - carrots, zucchini, tomatoes, broccoli, cucumbers, cauliflower, beetroot, eggplant, asparagus, kohlrabi, greens, wheat germ, kelp, and ripe fruits and berries () pears, apricots, mangoes, tangerines, strawberries, peaches, peeled apples, melons, grapes, raspberries, bananas).
It is useful to include various nuts, dried fruits, honey and bee products in the diet. In small quantities, dry and fortified wines, beer, cognac can be introduced into the diet. Of the drinks, green and herbal tea, not carbonated mineral water, are extremely useful.
What is nutritional support for cancer patients?
Nutritional support was developed by Arvid Wretlind. He described the basic principles special nutrition for cancer patients.
1. Timeliness. Nutritional support for cancer patients should be started as early as possible, even before the development of various nutritional disorders. Untimely started nutritional support may not lead to proper results and may not prevent the development of protein-energy deficiency, followed by cachexia.
2. Optimality. Nutritional support for cancer patients should be carried out for a long time, until complete recovery of weight, analyzes and digestive functions of the body. You can complete the therapy only after making sure that the clinical nutrition of the patient is fully restored. Early canceled artificial nutrition will not be effective and will not lead to proper results.
3. Adequacy. Artificial nutrition must meet the energy needs of the body and be balanced in nutrient composition. If nutrition is not balanced, then the body will not receive the necessary elements. Or vice versa will receive them more than necessary.
How to assess the energy needs of a cancer patient?
When compiling artificial nutrition, it is necessary to correctly assess the patient's energy needs. Estimate energy needs using special formulas. The simplest of these is an indicator of the average energy requirement of a cancer patient. It is 25-35 non-protein kilocalories per kg of body weight per day. In total, it turns out that the patient should receive about 2500 kcal per day.
Also, there are more accurate and complex formulas for calculating the patient’s energy needs. The most famous calculation formula is Harris-Benedict equation.
The equation includes the height, weight, age and gender of the patient with the addition of the so-called stress factor:
EOO (men) = 66 + (13.7xMT) + (5xP) - (6.8xV)
EOO (women) = 655 + (9.6xMT) + (1.8xP) - (4.7xV)
where EOO - the main exchange (kcal)
MT - body weight (kg)
P - height (cm)
In - age (years).
In stressful situations, the intensity of energy consumption changes, and depending on the condition of the patient, the daily energy requirement may be as follows:
- After planned abdominal surgery - 30-40 kcal / kg.
- After radical cancer surgery - 50-60 kcal / kg.
- With severe mechanical skeletal injuries - 50-70 kcal / kg.
- For traumatic brain injuries - 60-80 kcal / kg.
When is nutritional support needed for cancer patients?
1. Nutritional support for cancer It is indicated for patients receiving systemic antitumor therapy for a long time (chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy).
With prolonged antitumor treatment, various side effects develop that cause a decrease in appetite, a decrease in protein, the destruction of essential amino acids in the body and loss of fluid. All this can interfere with further therapy and cause a deterioration in the patient’s well-being and tumor progression.
2. Also, nutritional support is needed for cancer patients with eating disorders (stenosis of the esophagus, stomach or intestines) or absorption of nutrients (carcinoid syndrome). Special nutrition in these cases will make up for the missing nutrients and prevent the development of asthenia and cachexia.
3. With prolonged radiation therapy additional nutrition is also needed to more quickly repair damaged tissue and improve bone marrow function.
4. For cancer patients who underwent volume abdominal surgery, special diets are also provided that allow you to quickly restore the body and move on to the next stages of treatment. This is very important, since there are strict time frames within which it is necessary to start postoperative chemotherapy or radiation therapy. If the patient’s recovery after surgery is delayed, this threatens that chemotherapy or radiation therapy will begin later than necessary, and this threatens to relapse in the postoperative area.
Methods of nutritional support for cancer patients
For nutritional support and prevention of protein deficiency, many varieties of additional artificial nutrition, special mixtures and diets have been developed.
Special nutrition for cancer patients may vary depending on the nature of the introduction into the body and is divided into:
1. Artificial nutrition (enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition) and
2. Therapeutic nutrition (various diets).
Artificial nutrition for cancer patients
1. Enteral nutrition for cancer
With enteral nutrition, it is necessary to eat food on your own, either through a gastric tube or gastrostomy. During the enteral nutrition of a cancer patient, nutrients are absorbed through the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, as with normal nutrition.
Enteral nutrition is divided by the nature of the delivery of the nutrient mixture into the body by:
Probe Nutrition - nutrition, in which finely dispersed mixtures are used, which are introduced into the body through nasogastric tubes or gastrostomy tubes. Probe nutrition is usually used when an oncological patient has problems with patency of the esophagus or stomach, and he cannot receive food naturally. Also, probe nutrition is used if the patient is in a coma, this often happens with cancer metastases in the brain or brain tumors.
Sipping food - nutrition, in which nutrient mixtures are introduced into the body naturally through the mouth. This food is most common among all types of artificial nutrition. Mixtures for the nutrition of cancer patients dry and ready to eat.
The most common nutrient mixtures for enteral nutrition of cancer patients are: Nutridrink compact protein, Nutricia, Nutricomp, Supportan, Nutrizon and others.
All of these mixtures can be used as the sole or additional source of nutrition. It must be remembered that these drugs must be taken for at least 3 weeks, since a clinically significant effect occurs only after this time.
Also enteral nutrition mixtures must be taken slowly, in small sips for 20-30 minutes, 2-3 bottles per day. An open bottle or bag with the mixture can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 24 hours.
Like other drugs, mixtures for enteral nutrition of cancer patients have their contraindications and are not prescribed to patients with allergies to cow's milk proteins, individual intolerance to the individual components of the mixture, galactosemia.
2. Parenteral nutrition for cancer patients
At parenteral nutrition in cancer patientsNutrients are delivered to the body intravenously via droppers. Nutrients are already split into smaller molecules, which allows you to enter them directly into the bloodstream. As preparations for parenteral nutrition they use well-balanced solutions of amino acids and protein fractions, donated blood, protein hydrolysates, saline and glucose solutions with trace elements and vitamin supplements. Parenteral nutrition is used in conjunction with enteral nutrition, or when it is no longer possible.
Classification of drugs for parenteral nutrition of cancer patients
Currently there are many drugs for parenteral nutrition. They are used both separately and in combination in order to provide the most optimal amount of necessary substances.
1. Donators of plastic material:
- Standard solutions of crystalline amino acids (Aminoplasmal, Aminosteril, Vamin, Aminosol),
- Specialized in age and pathology (Aminoplasmal Hepa, Aminosteril Hepa, Aminosteril-Nephro, Aminoven Infant, Aminolact).
2. Energy donors:
- Fat emulsions (Structolipid MCT / LST, omegaven, lipoplus 3 omega FA, lipofundin MCT / LST, Lipovenosis LST, Intralipid LST),
- Carbohydrate solutions (Glucose solution 20% - 40%).
3. Vitamin and trace element complexes for parenteral nutrition:
- Multicomponent mixtures for parenteral nutrition (Nutriflex peri, Nutriflex lipid plus, Cabiven peripheral, Cabiven smooth)
In modern oncology, for parenteral nutrition of cancer patients, schemes are used with limited glucose use, as well as the appointment of structured lipids, omega-3 acids and ternary mixtures.
Parenteral nutrition also has its contraindications. This is a refractory shock syndrome, intolerance to the individual components of the diet, hyperhydration, fat embolism, thromboembolism, anaphylaxis on the components of the nutrient media.
Clinical nutrition for cancer patients
Cancer Healing Nutrition - This is the patient’s diet, in which the complex of consumed products increases the effectiveness of the main treatment and reduces the likelihood of relapses and exacerbations of cachexia. The founder of medical nutrition in our country is M. I. Pevzner, who believed that the nutrition of the patient is the key factor against which the main methods of treating the disease should be applied.
Many confuse therapeutic and dietary foods. In practice, these are concepts that differ in their meaning. Dietary nutrition is necessary for people with chronic diseases in order to keep them in remission. For example, for peptic ulcer, do not drink alcohol and spicy sauces. In turn, therapeutic nutrition is aimed at enhancing the therapeutic effect of the underlying disease and is based on the physiological, biochemical and energy data of the patient.
Cancer Healing Nutrition is one of the important factors that can prevent the occurrence of cachexia and protein-energy deficiency. Clinical nutrition for cancer patients helps to cope with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Also, clinical nutrition is prescribed for cancer patients after extensive operations to remove malignant tumors.
Proper medical nutrition for cancer patients must meet the following criteria:
1. To provide the physiological needs of the cancer patient in nutrients.
The basis of medical nutrition is the correct calculation of the amount of necessary nutrients depending on gender, age, tests and associated diseases of the cancer patient. When treating an oncological patient with clinical nutrition, it is possible to unbalance the usual diet by limiting or increasing individual nutrients, depending on deviations in the analyzes.
For example, with kidney cancer, a healthy diet will be with a minimal amount of protein. The degree of reduction in the amount of protein will depend on the degree of violation of the excretory function of the kidneys, and at the same time should be the minimum daily physiological norm of the patient. Also, the goal of clinical nutrition is to provide the patient with carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, essential fatty acids and minerals.
2. Comply with biochemical and physiological laws responsible for the assimilation of nutrients in a sick person.
Clinical nutrition should ensure full compliance between the prescribed food and the physiological capabilities of the cancer patient. For example, a patient has stomach cancer with stenosis (a tumor blocking part of the lumen of the stomach), and he cannot eat regular, non-ground food. Then he is assigned fractional nutrition - in small portions, ground, porridge-like food.
Also, given the characteristics of metabolism and the condition of the organs and systems of the oncological patient, he is assigned a special selection of products and methods of their culinary processing. Compliance with all these parameters ensures the fastest recovery of the patient.
3. Meet the aesthetic, taste and physiological needs.
Food for the clinical nutrition of an oncological patient should have an attractive appearance, good taste and pleasant aroma. This can be achieved through the design of dishes and the use of acceptable seasonings and spices (cinnamon, herbs, vanillin, citric acid, salt, pepper). Compliance with this rule is very important with strict diets with a limited selection of foods and a predominance of boiled dishes.
4. Contain the methods of training, unloading and contrasting days.
IN medical nutrition of cancer patients apply a number of methods to determine the norm under the influence of chemical, mechanical or temperature stimuli. For example, in pancreatic cancer, accompanied by secretory insufficiency, a mechanically and thermally sparing diet should be prescribed with the switching off of some chemical stimulants of pancreatic secretion.
With unloading diets, not only the severity of the disease, but also the duration of the diet, is taken into account. It is important to avoid the rapid expansion of strict diets or their tightening, as this is fraught with various complications. For example, if salt is excluded from the diet for a long time, there may be a lack of sodium and chlorine in the body, which will cause a deterioration in heart function.
5. Corresponding to ethnic and individual characteristics of food.
When developing medical diet for the cancer patient, it is necessary to take into account climatic conditions, local and national traditions in food, the presence of allergies, material capabilities and preferences of the patient.
Of course, when taking into account the wishes of the patient, it should be remembered that his tastes and desires at the moment cannot be the basis for the development of therapeutic nutrition, but can help individualize the diet specifically for him. Only taking into account the totality of all these factors can a truly effective therapeutic diet be assigned to a cancer patient.
In order to independently monitor the correct observance of the diet prescribed by the doctor, use special "food diaries". This will help you build your nutrition during the day, make the necessary adjustments and report to the attending physician on repeated appointments.
Is it important to eat right with oncology?
Choosing unhealthy foods for food with preservatives, stabilizers, flavor enhancers, we not only do not contribute to better health, but also provoke the onset of many diseases, including cancer. But if the simple prevention of oncology with the help of proper nutrition seems to be an inefficient occupation and a waste of time, then diet treatment for an existing oncological disease is crucial during or after medical treatment, helping to stabilize cancer patients.
A properly balanced diet supports a normal metabolism, fills the body with vitamins, minerals that are necessary for the digestive system, but also interfere with the formation of free radicals, which can adversely affect organ tissues.
In patients with malignant neoplasms (carcinomas), the metabolism breaks down due to the fact that the tumor requires a significant amount of glucose, vitamins and protein, while throwing toxic waste products into the patient's blood. This is accompanied by intoxication, weight loss and severe weakness.If bleeding occurs during the disease, then signs of anemia and lack of oxygen in the tissues may appear, and this still exacerbates the condition of the patient with oncology.
A feature of the diet of an oncological patient is that if it is necessary to refuse a large assortment of products, it is necessary, if possible, to provide the patient with oncology with the required amount of calories and nutrients. And with certain types of tumors (in the stomach, intestines, larynx, oral cavity), this is difficult to achieve. In such cases, in addition to regular nutrition, resort to infusion or enteral (using a probe) the introduction of additional mixtures and substances. This often happens if the patient belongs to incurable oncological patients, i.e. when there is no longer any hope for a good outcome of the disease.
Diet for Oncology
The diet against the formation of cancer cells should consist of a large number of plant foods: vegetables and fruits, cereals and legumes, fiber, but do not delete meat from the diet, preferring its low-fat varieties - veal, turkey, rabbit. It is necessary to include in the diet fish, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and seafood, where iodine is present in the right amount.
But the first step to such a diet should be the rejection of products that contain carcinogens and, accordingly, cause cancer: fast food, sausages, smoked meat and fish, potato chips, various convenience foods, pastries, carbonated sugary drinks, etc. . d.
If the condition of the digestive system of a cancer patient permits, then the diet should contain easily accessible carbohydrates in the form of nuts, honey, dried fruits (dried apricots, raisins, dates), cookies or chocolate.
Cancer Nutrition Guidelines
The diet for oncology must always be agreed with the doctor, since it is important to know the exact data on the location, stage and malignancy of the tumor formation. After any treatment, for example, chemotherapy of malignant tumors, and after surgery, it is advisable to reconsider the nutrition, in consultation with an oncologist. In this case, the diet should contain digestible foods, and food that can give the maximum amount of protein and carbohydrates for recovery and regeneration. To calculate, use the ratio: per 1 kg of a person’s weight, up to 30-40 kilocalories are needed. In accordance with this, you can calculate the approximate calorie diet.
Important! Nutrition should consist of 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 15% protein.
In oncology, it is necessary to observe the mandatory simple requirements for eating and cooking:
- Eat food at room temperature, eliminate the ingestion of food very hot or from the refrigerator,
- Chew food carefully, to improve digestion. This is especially important for patients with gastrointestinal cancer,
- It is advisable to eat food boiled, to exclude fried foods. Frying worsens the condition of the body as a whole, and the liver, in particular,
- There are small portions (about 250 g per serving) 5 to 7 times a day,
- Eat only fresh foods, do not store ready meals for more than noon,
- For those who have had a stomach resection, they need to grind the food in a blender,
- On the day, drink at least 2 liters of water without gas, you can boiled from the tap.
What foods should be consumed from cancer
Given many years of research, we can highlight some products that inhibit the development of the tumor, i.e. slow her growth. They contain substances with antioxidant, anti-cancer substances and even substances that increase immunity. The right diet can not only be cancer prevention, but also gives cancer patients an extra chance of cure.
The list of products useful in oncology include:
- Low-fat fish,
- Legumes and cereals, soybeans,
- Broccoli (other cruciferous vegetables),
- Garlic and onion,
- Berries, Fruits,
- Green (black) tea.
Fish, due to the content of omega-3 fatty acids in it, helps to normalize fat metabolism, prevents the formation of free radicals and oxidation in cells. Those who prefer fish instead of fatty meat, are less obese and have diabetes, and prevent relapse of the tumor (metastases).
Legumes and cereals (asparagus, chickpeas, lentils, peas, buckwheat, green beans), soybeans contain a sufficient amount of trace elements, vitamins and fiber. Plus, they give the body the right amount of calories, without causing obesity, which can be one of the risk factors for the formation of malignant tumors. Legumes and cereals contain chymotrypsin and trypsin, which helps to reduce the growth rate of aggressive cells (a kind of anti-cancer substance). Derivatives of soy have anti-cancer properties and reduce side effects during radiation or chemotherapy.
Broccoli contains several substances that have an antitumor effect - lutein, sulforaphane, indole-3-carbinol. As a result of research, it was found that broccoli is very useful in cancer of the lungs, bladder, prostate, and breast. The risk of lung cancer with systematic consumption of broccoli over a 10-year period is reduced by almost a third, and in men who consume at least 300 g of broccoli per week, the risk of developing bladder cancer is almost halved. A particularly good result from eating broccoli is obtained by using steamed young cabbage.
White and cauliflower, watercress (plants from the cruciferous family) have similar properties. White cabbage can normalize estrogen levels and interfere with the formation of breast and prostate cancer. If there are precancerous processes in the cervix (dysplasia), the components present in the cabbage fight cancer cells.
Contained in tomatoes lycopene is a powerful antioxidant. Lycopene inhibits the growth of present tumors and helps the body's antioxidant properties work better. If you eat tomatoes raw and drink like juice (paste), this can lead to a decrease in the volume of certain types of tumors (cancer of the prostate, lung, and breast). For preventive purposes, tomatoes are used to reduce the risk of cancer of the intestine, cervix, pancreas.
Garlic has an antimicrobial effect and enhances the functioning of lymphocytes and macrophages, due to the phytoncides present in it. It contains a substance (diallyl sulfide), which is very effective in the fight against malignant neoplasms (cancer of the prostate, stomach, intestines, skin). The use of garlic is even more effective than BCG therapy for oncology of the bladder.
For a positive effect, you need to eat a clove of garlic daily, but it should be borne in mind that it is possible to strengthen the digestive tract, as well as the occurrence of abdominal pain and vomiting. Due to its anticoagulant properties, it is not necessary to get carried away with garlic for those who have blood clotting problems, or when taking medications that thin the blood, as well as before surgery. Onions have similar, but less pronounced properties.
Berries (strawberries, cherries, raspberries, blueberries, cherries, currants, cranberries, mulberries, blackberries, strawberries) and fruits (lemon, mandarin, apple, grapefruit, banana, plums, peaches, apricot), grapes and some vegetables (for example, beets or pumpkin) have a lot of vitamin C and other useful ingredients - lycopene, beta-carotene, ellagic acid, quercetin and lutein. Often just citrus peel is used to brew it with tea.
In grapes (mainly in the peel and seeds) there is a substance resveratrol, which has antioxidants that prevent the occurrence of genetic mutations in the cells of the body. This substance stops the development of inflammatory processes, which are both the cause and effect of cancer. It is sometimes advised to consume a small amount of wine, which can act as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for cancer patients.
Due to the estrogen-like substances contained in grapes, which cause an increase in the growth of breast cancerous tumors, women with precancerous conditions and breast cancer should use grapes with caution.
The use of green tea is useful for the prevention and control of cancer due to the polyphenols (gallate of epigallocatechin or catechin, it reduces the rate of tumor development), which have an antioxidant effect. A similar but less pronounced effect can be obtained from black tea. By stopping the destructive effect of free radicals, tea increases the antitumor activity of the body, interferes with the growth of existing neoplasms by reducing the growth rate of blood vessels in them, in fact, it is an anticarcinogen.
To get a positive effect, you need to drink about 3 cups of green tea per day, having heart problems (arrhythmias) or gastrointestinal tract organs, you should not get carried away excessively.
You can also mention other, useful for cancer conditions, products. You can use honey, propolis, royal jelly, pollen, they are useful for oncology of the intestines and mammary gland due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
Very useful: seaweed, brown seaweed (spirulina, dulce, wakame, chlorella, kombu), shiitake mushrooms (increase immunity and reduce swelling and swelling of the neoplasm), nuts (walnuts, peanuts) and seeds (pumpkin, sunflower, sesame, flaxseed) , olive oil.
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Leafy greens: spinach, lettuce, mustard, alfalfa, caraway seeds, parsnips, parsley contain an increased number of essential nutrients, minerals, vitamins and amino acids. Chlorophyll is also present in the leaves, from which we obtain natural iron.
Some aromatic herbs are very useful in oncology - they improve metabolism and help reduce the growth rate of cancerous tumors. These herbs include: mint, thyme, marjoram, cloves, rosemary, basil, caraway seeds.
Of the spices, turmeric and cinnamon should be noted, which can prevent the onset of cancer. For better assimilation of turmeric, you need to use it with ginger (or black pepper). In the process of eating, it is advised to take a teaspoon of turmeric powder. Ginger root has an antitumor property. It is best used in the form of a decoction or in grated form. Ginger can also reduce nausea in cancer. But it will need to be excluded from the diet, if surgery is expected in the near future.
The formation of cancer cells slows down also with the help of chili peppers. A similar stopping effect is possessed by: red beets, carrots, and other vegetables and fruits, yellowish or reddish in color.
Many doctors advise eating dark chocolate in small doses (it is useful for the prostate), in which cocoa does not exceed 70%.
What you can not eat with oncology
In addition to the recommended products for oncology and during its treatment, there are products whose use is contraindicated in this disease:
- Alcoholic drinks, coffee, carbonated drinks,
- Canned Food, Pickles, Marinades,
- Smoked meats, frozen convenience foods,
- Any kind of fried fat, lard,
- Food containing vinegar
- Whole milk (other dairy and sour-milk products, such as kefir, are allowed),
- Flour, pastries, margarine,
- Ketchup mayonnaise
- Processed cheese
- Highly spicy, salty and fatty foods.
Bad habits like smoking are considered an additional blow to the body.
Some types of cancer and eating habits with them
With some forms of cancer, special types of diet are required - special nutrition. This applies directly to patients with pathologies of the digestive system, after surgery, during chemotherapy.
When diagnosed with cancer of the stomach (rectum), too spicy, fried or fatty dishes, seasonings are contraindicated, foods that increase the secretion of gastric juice (pickled vegetables, alcohol, carbonated drinks) are also prohibited. Preference is given to soups, cereals, ground meat, various mashed potatoes, fruits. With surgical intervention, the diet involves a temporary absolute refusal to eat through the mouth for 2 to 6 days. All the necessary nutritional components are administered intravenously (parenterally) through a dropper. Later, enteral nutrition (via a probe) is possible with nutritional modules that include a single nutrient: proteins, fats or carbohydrates.
With bowel cancer, food should be easily digestible, preference should be given to plant foods, vegetables, fish, vegetable oil. Do not eat foods that increase gas production (grapes, cabbage). Be sure to exclude alcohol. Food should be fractional. Similar principles should be followed in liver cancer.
For breast cancer, some products are recommended for use that help fight tumors in this area. Such products include: soy, pumpkin, carrots, spinach, salmon, cod, hake, halibut.
Features of diets after surgery
Patients in the postoperative period are allowed to consume fermented milk products (cottage cheese), eggs, fish, drink tea (kissel). Later, the list of allowed products can be expanded, but for some products: fried and smoked dishes, seasonings, sweets and alcohol, there will be no place in it. Cereals, bran, which have the ability to normalize peristalsis, which prevent constipation, are useful. But rice and pasta are illegal foods.
In the presence of a collection bag for the output of feces, patients (especially seriously ill bedridden) are required to observe the correct drinking regimen (avoiding dehydration). The cabbage, beans, eggs, seasonings, apple and grape juice, nuts, which can cause gas formation, are contraindicated in the menu.
The diet for stage 4 oncology has its own characteristics depending on the location of the neoplasm, but all patients need a high-calorie specialized diet, since the cancer tumor "eats" a significant amount of energy, amino acids, glucose, vitamins, and proteins.
Cancer cachexia, or in other words, depletion (weakening) of the body, the fate of all patients with advanced forms of oncology. Possible loss of appetite or even a complete aversion to food in general, or to certain foods, such as meat. Often the cancer patient refuses food and he needs to increase his appetite, which can be done by diversifying the diet with recipes for new dishes. In addition to good nutrition, patients need to drink vitamins, take multivitamins and minerals in tablets, and drugs that make up for the lack of iron, magnesium, and selenium. Do not be afraid to consume carbohydrates. Many people think that a malignant tumor consumes an increased amount of glucose, then this is a contraindication for its consumption, but it is necessary to take into account the energy consumption of the sick person, therefore, compensation of his own needs is the main task of nutrition.
Features of the diet after chemotherapy
When conducting chemotherapy and in pauses between courses, it is advised to use products from four groups:
- Bread and cereals
- Vegetables and fruits.
When conducting chemotherapy, it is necessary to increase the volume of fluid consumed to 2 liters per day, if the kidneys are working, and urine is normally excreted. It is useful to drink juices - carrot, apple, beetroot, raspberry, and generally good use of lactation.
If the patient is constantly sick and vomits, then it is necessary to reduce the consumption of milk, too sweet (sugar in large quantities is harmful to the patient) and fatty foods. It is reasonable to do breathing exercises, eat small meals and not drink a lot of water after eating so that the stomach does not overflow. It is necessary to abandon spices, products with a strong taste, and right before the introduction of any chemotherapeutic drugs or when it is necessary to irradiate, it is better for cancer patients not to eat food.
There are many types of diets that are recommended for oncology: protein-free, protein, alkaline, universal, etc. But we can say that the attending physician prescribes each diet individually, no matter how good it is, based not only on the disease, but also taking into account many other factors.
After the operation on the stomach to excise the tumor, I had to go on a diet. For a long time I got used to the lack of certain foods, but then I got a taste and even try to diversify my diet menu with allowed foods.
I heard that with oncology you can eat caviar, both red and black, and recently I read that, indeed, it can replace fatty fish with a healthy Omega3.